Host cell responses upon Bp -844 and Bt -UE5 infection. Mφs (A and C) and MoDCs (B and D) were infected with Bp-844 or Bt-UE5 at MOI of 1 for 24 hr and 250 μg/ml kanamycin was added 2 hr after infection. Expression levels of CD86, CD80 and CD11b of Mφs (A) and CD86, CD83 and CD40 of MoDCs (B) on the cell surface were determined with flow cytometry and the results are shown as mean and SEM. Cytokines in supernatants of infected Mφs (C) and infected MoDCs (D) were measured by ELISA and results are shown as mean and SEM, with each symbol representing the level from individual donor. E. coli LPS (1 μg/ml) and PBS were used as controls. Number in parenthesis indicates the number of donors for each experiment. MFI = mean fluorescence intensity.