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Table 2 Summary of putative NLR ligands predicted to bind to their LRR domains, based on similarity of surface features between NLRs and TLRs with known agonists.

From: Understanding diversity of human innate immunity receptors: analysis of surface features of leucine-rich repeat domains in NLRs and TLRs

HUGO name Nomenclature Known agonists Hydropathy similarity Charge similarity Putative ligands
NOD1 NOD1 iE-DAP NALP5, NALP8 NOD2, NALP5, NALP8 n/a
NOD2 NOD2 MDP, also modulates NALP1 activation NALP7, NALP8 NOD1, NALP7, NALP8 n/a
NLRC3 NOD3   NALP3   no prediction
NLRC4 IPAF Bacterial flagellin TLR5, NALP14, CIITA NALP14 n/a
NLRC5 NOD4   NALP12, NALP13   no prediction
NLRP1 NALP1 MDP    n/a
NLRP2 NALP2 MDP NALP3 NALP3 n/a
NLRP3 NALP3 Bacterial RNA, MDP, R837, R848, CSs, etc. NALP2, NOD3 NALP2, NALP7 n/a
NLRP4 NALP4   NALP14   no prediction
NLRP5 NALP5   NOD1, NALP8 NOD1, NALP8 small molecules
NLRP6 NALP6   TLR3 TLR3 RNA/DNA
NLRP7 NALP7   NOD2, NALP13 NOD2, NALP3 small molecules
NLRP8 NALP8   NOD1, NOD2, NALP5 NOD1, NOD2, NALP5 small molecules
NLRP9 NALP9   RI RI protein-like
NLRP10 NALP10     no prediction
NLRP11 NALP11   TLR7 TLR3, TLR7 RNA
NLRP12 NALP12 Antagonizes IRAK-1 NOD4   no prediction
NLRP13 NALP13   NOD4, NALP7   no prediction
NLRP14 NALP14   NALP4, IPAF IPAF flagellin
NLRB1 NAIP   RI TLR8 no prediction
NLRX1 NOD5     no prediction
NLRA CIITA ZXDC binds to LRR region IPAF, TLR4, TLR5   protein-like
  RI Ribonuclease NALP9, NAIP NALP9 n/a
  TLR1 triacyl lipopeptide (in complex with TLR2)    n/a
  TLR2 triacyl-, diacyl-lipopeptides (in complex with TLR1, TLR6)    n/a
  TLR3 dsRNA NALP6 NALP6, NALP11 n/a
  TLR4 LPS-loaded MD2 CIITA   n/a
  TLR5 Bacterial flagellin IPAF, CIITA   n/a
  TLR6 diacyl-lipopeptide (in complex with TLR2)    n/a
  TLR7 ssRNA (HIV, SSV, influenza), imidazoquiniolines (e.g., R837), loxoribrine TLR8, NALP11 NALP11 n/a
  TLR8 ssRNA, imidazoquiniolines (e.g., R848) TLR7 NAIP n/a
  TLR9 Bacterial and viral CpG DNA motifs    n/a
  TLR10     no prediction
  1. Cases with correctly reproduced similarities are highlighted in bold. In the "putative ligands" column, cases with known ligands are denoted by "n/a", and cases where no prediction was made are marked accordingly.