Transcription factor activation. (A) Immunoblots of total Erk1/2 and phosphorylated Erk1/2, (B) immunoblots of total and phosphorylated p65 and CREB, and (C) immunoblots of total and phosphorylated IκBα in CTL during activation, and of phospho-NF-κB in the nuclear fraction. β-Actin and Lamin A/C concentrations were used as standards to adjust the applied protein amounts. Abbreviations are: Con = control; Nor = norepinephrine; Dop = dopamine; SubP = substance P; na = non-activated control. (D) Neurotransmitters were added at 10 μM (norepinephrine) and 1 μM (substance P and dopamine) in all experiments.