Inhibition of lymphocyte-epithelial (A) and monocyte-epithelial (B) cell adhesion by Enprocal D and other digested milk product controls. For adhesion assays, Caco-2 cell monolayers, grown in 96-well plates, were treated for 18 h with Enprocal D and other digested milk product controls. CMFDA-labeled Jurkat (A) or THP-1 (B) cells were then added. After incubation for 60 min at 37°C, nonadherent immune cells were removed by washing with HBSS and the monolayer-associated Jurkat cells or THP-1 was counted. Values are showed as the percent inhibition. All treatments were performed in triplicate and assay was repeated three times independently with similar results. The mean for representative experiment was calculated and presented as a mean ± SD values. ** Indicates a highly significant P < 0.001 value from the control with media only. *Indicates a significant P < 0.05 value from the control with media only.