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Figure 2 | BMC Immunology

Figure 2

From: Babassu aqueous extract (BAE) as an adjuvant for T helper (Th)1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

Figure 2

Concentrations of IFNγ and IL-4 in the supernatants of splenocyte cultures from BALB/c mice immunized with Leishmania promastigote extract (LE), associated or not with babassu aqueous extract (BAE). Splenocytes (from spleens collected ten days after the end of the immunization) were stimulated with LE and concentrations of IFNγ (A) and IL-4 (B) in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. Groups of five to 12 animals were immunized by two subcutaneous injections of LE, associated with BAE (LE + BAE) or of Al(OH)3 gel-adsorbed LE, also associated with BAE (LE-Al(OH) 3 + BAE), 14 days apart. Groups of control mice were also immunized with LE emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (LE + CFA), with LE without BAE (LE), and with Al(OH)3-adsorbed LE without BAE (LE-Al(OH) 3 ), following the same immunization protocol. Each injection contained a total of 250 μg of LE and/or 5 mg of BAE. A negative control group was injected with a saline solution in place of the immunizing injections (Saline). The boxes represent the 10-90 percentile intervals and the median values of the results, and the vertical bars the value ranges. P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test. *, P ≤ 0.004; **, P ≤ 0.003; ***, P ≤ 0.002; ****, P ≤ 0.001; ns, non significant; Mann-Whitney U test.

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