Acute alcohol exposure augments TLR8- or TLR4- induced IL-10 expression. Human monocytes (n = 3) were either treated or not with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 ug/ml CL075 (TLR8 ligand) or 0.1 ug/ml LPS (TLR4 ligand) for 6 hours. Some cells were stimulated with a combination of 25 mM ethanol and 2.5 ug/ml CL075 or 25 mM ethanol and 0.1 ug/ml LPS. The cell-free culture supernatants were collected and IL-10 production was measured by ELISA. Error bars represent ± SEM. unst: unstimulated.