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Table 4 Comparison of cytokines in early and late acute hantavirus infection and healthy controls.

From: Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

parameter healthy controls
(n = 39)
early phase
(n = 64)
early phase*
(n = 21)
late phase
(n = 21)
p1 p2 p3
IL-2 (pg/ml),
IL-2/creatinine
2.2±8.6
2.7±12.2
9.5±7.2
3.8±4.5
7.2±5.6
3.2±3.9
14 ±17
15±25
<0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
0.08
0.005
IL-5 (pg/ml)
IL-5/creatinine
3.3±8.4
3.5±7.8
0.6±2.1
0.3±1.4
0.4±0.6
0.2±0.5
0.3±0.6
0.2±0.5
0.82
1.00
0.63
0.61
0.56
0.65
IL-6 (pg/ml)
IL-6/creatinine
1.1±1.6
1.3±2.0
7.8±9.8
2.5±3.1
8.2±6.1
3.3±3.6
2.6±2.4
1.8±1.2
<0.0001
0.0003
0.0002
0.004
0.001
0.17
IL-8 (pg/ml)
IL-8/creatinine
13±32
14±34
563±1809
161±406
444±1076
147±378
130±230
93±163
<0.0001
0.0001
0.001
0.002
0.16
0.57
IL-10 (pg/ml)
IL-10/creatinine
2.4±5.5
2.6±5.7
5.2±8.4
2.2±5.6
8.3±10.7
4.4±8.6
0.7±2.0
0.6±1.9
0.014
0.18
0.17
0.14
0.001
0.003
TNF-α (pg/ml) TNF-α/creatinine 0.8±1.0
0.9±1.1
5.2±4.2
1.7±1.4
6.4±4.6
2.2±1.9
3.6±3.1
3.0±2.9
<0.0001
0.001
<0.0001
<0.0001
0.001
0.09
TGF-β (pg/ml)
TGF-β/creatinine
4203±2132
4529±2266
23708±12207
11178±13749
21581±9068
8605±7184
32847±13513
29239±18032
<0.0001
0.004
<0.0001
<0.0001
0.004
0.0001
IFN-γ (pg/ml)
IFN-γ/creatinine
0.3±1.8
0.4±2.5
1.1±6.7
0.3±2.2
2.9±11.6
1.0±3.9
10.5±33.5
7.5±23.9
0.41
0.41
0.23
0.23
0.29
0.29
  1. Statistical significant differences between healthy controls, patients with early hantavirus infection and patients with late hantavirus infection are shown in bold.
  2. All data are given as mean±1SD. p1 = early phase acute hantavirus infection (n = 64) vs. healthy controls; p2 = late phase acute hantavirus infection vs. healthy controls; p3 = early phase (n = 21) vs. late phase acute hantavirus infection. P-values were calculated using Mann-Whitney-U and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests. Adjustment for multiple testing was done according to the method of Bonferroni. Only p-values of <0.01 after adjustment were considered to be significant and are bold printed. *only early phase samples of patients for which a corresponding late phase sample was available. To exclude cytokine accumulation due to impairment of renal excretion function, cytokine/creatinine ratios were calculated.