Involvement of Toll-like receptor family in DNA recognition. RT-PCR analysis (45 cycles) for TLR-2, -7, -9, TRIF and MyD88 and DAI expression in HaCaT cells and HKC stimulated with DNA (5 μg DNA/ml medium) from adenovirus (Ad), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), calf thymus (CT) and plasmids (P). Cells were stimulated for 6 h (HKC) and 15 h (HaCaT cells). Data from DAI expression was generated from cells transfected with 5 μg DNA/ml medium. Results were normalised to 18S ribosomal RNA (ratio: target gene/housekeeping gene) and compared to non-treated samples (vehicle control) (* = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.005 to vehicle control).