cDNA array analysis for cytokines, chemokines, and receptors involved in the responses of teeth to caries. Expression of inflammatory genes in the odontoblast layer (ODL) and pulp of normal versus carious teeth was determined by cDNA arrays (A&B) and verified by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) (C-K). C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), CCR4, CCR5, C-C chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), CCL23, interleukin-1β (IL-1B), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA), and lymphotoxin α (LTA) mRNA significantly increased in ODL and pulp of carious teeth. CCR9 was significantly upregulated only in the ODL of carious teeth. These genes may play important roles in the responses of teeth to caries. Black Hexagons indicate house keeping genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogense, GAPDH; and beta-actin, B-ACTIN). Black-boxed marks indicate no statistically significant changes in gene expression levels between normal and carious teeth. Red-boxed marks label genes with statistically significant increases in carious teeth while green-boxed marks label genes with statistically significant decreases in carious teeth. Genes labeled with a solid line box were verified by qPCR but those with a dashed line box were not verified by qPCR. Values are reported as relative fold change in mRNA transcription of normal versus carious samples. The data represent means and standard errors from triplicate wells of one experiment and are representative of three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant changes, with P < 0.05.