Graphical demonstration of associated functions from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05; DE) genes for NV, EV, AV, CV relative to BL samples. The functional analysis identifies biological functions and/or diseases that are most significant to the data set. Molecules from the DE gene dataset that are associated with biological functions and/or diseases in Ingenuity's Knowledge Base were considered for the analysis. Right-tailed Fisher's exact test was used to calculate a P-value determining the probability that each biological function and/or disease assigned to that data set is due to chance alone. The y-axis displays the functional categories that are identified in analyses. The x-axis demonstrates the significance which is the value of -log (P). Functions are listed from most significant to least and the orange vertical line denotes the cutoff for significance (P-value of 0.05). For each analysis, only the top 18 functional categories are displayed due to large size of the data files.