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Table 1 Comparison of levels of intracellular (P. falciparum-specific) and plasma cytokines and chemokines between IPTi treatment groups for each cross-sectional visit.

From: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine does not modify plasma cytokines and chemokines or intracellular cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum in Mozambican Children

    Unadjusted geometric mean Unadjusted linear regression* Adjusted linear regression*,
    Placebo SP P value   P value   P value
Cytokines and chemokines Age (months) GM 95% CI GM 95% CI   Proportional difference§   Proportional difference  
Intracellular (% producing lymphocytes) IFN-γ 5 0.17 0.13 - 0.23 0.13 0.10 - 0.18 0.210 0.77 0.207 0.80 0.293
   9 0.05 0.04 - 0.07 0.05 0.04 - 0.07 0.994 1.00 0.994 1.01 0.965
   12 0.07 0.05 - 0.11 0.05 0.03 - 0.08 0.348 0.75 0.344 0.76 0.363
   24 0.05 0.04 - 0.08 0.04 0.03 - 0.06 0.395 0.80 0.391 0.82 0.433
  IL-4 5 0.96 0.81 - 1.12 0.94 0.80 - 1.10 0.864 0.98 0.863 1.00 0.995
   9 0.87 0.77 - 0.99 0.82 0.71 - 0.95 0.544 0.94 0.542 0.94 0.546
   12 0.80 0.64 - 0.99 0.91 0.71 - 1.17 0.427 1.14 0.422 1.13 0.453
   24 0.86 0.70 - 1.04 0.82 0.65 - 1.04 0.814 0.96 0.812 0.97 0.848
  IL-10 5 0.37 0.30 - 0.45 0.36 0.31 - 0.43 0.933 0.99 0.933 1.01 0.922
   9 0.15 0.12 - 0.19 0.18 0.15 - 0.21 0.285 1.16 0.282 1.15 0.294
   12 0.23 0.17 - 0.31 0.22 0.17 - 0.31 0.886 0.97 0.885 0.96 0.852
   24 0.32 0.25 - 0.42 0.35 0.27 - 0.45 0.667 1.08 0.664 1.07 0.695
Plasma (pg/ml) IL-2 5 16.17 12.31 - 21.24 17.25 13.04 - 22.82 0.742 1.07 0.741 1.12 0.569
   9 12.99 9.48 - 17.79 12.17 9.35 - 15.83 0.752 0.94 0.750 0.93 0.742
   12 8.56 6.34 - 11.56 7.17 5.22 - 9.86 0.424 0.84 0.422 0.84 0.438
   24 7.09 5.08 - 9.90 5.36 3.83 - 7.49 0.241 0.76 0.237 0.76 0.254
  IL-12 5 2.36 1.80 - 3.10 1.87 1.34 - 2.61 0.280 0.79 0.277 0.79 0.284
   9 2.37 1.74 - 3.22 1.54 1.21 - 1.96 0.030 0.65 0.030 0.66 0.030
   12 1.43 1.14 - 1.78 1.31 1.08 - 1.58 0.550 0.92 0.548 0.93 0.596
   24 2.35 1.83 - 3.01 2.22 1.74 - 2.83 0.747 0.95 0.745 0.97 0.844
  IFN-γ 5 156.50 105.27-232.66 147.8 98.96 - 220.93 0.842 0.94 0.841 0.97 0.928
   9 145.93 93.78 - 227.08 115.0 75.84 - 174.44 0.437 0.79 0.435 0.79 0.434
   12 77.61 51.44 - 117.10 55.47 35.17 - 87.47 0.280 0.71 0.278 0.71 0.267
   24 128.29 85.71 - 192.03 79.89 51.45 - 124.06 0.116 0.62 0.113 0.62 0.106
  IL-1β 5 35.03 25.11 - 48.87 41.15 28.66 - 59.09 0.516 1.17 0.514 1.16 0.547
   9 11.61 8.50 - 15.86 11.45 8.46 - 15.50 0.950 0.99 0.950 0.99 0.957
   12 13.53 9.70 - 18.86 13.98 10.54 - 18.55 0.880 1.03 0.879 1.04 0.869
   24 20.05 13.99 - 28.73 17.64 12.12 - 25.69 0.625 0.88 0.622 0.86 0.566
  IL-6 5 99.22 72.21 - 136.34 127.6 97.52 - 166.95 0.231 1.29 0.228 1.27 0.254
   9 59.24 43.36 - 80.95 56.47 41.93 - 76.05 0.825 0.95 0.824 0.95 0.810
   12 76.28 54.51 - 106.75 70.96 51.65 - 97.48 0.756 0.93 0.755 0.93 0.772
   24 82.64 55.45 - 123.14 80.68 54.88 - 118.62 0.931 0.98 0.931 0.97 0.907
  TNF 5 53.64 38.35 - 75.02 54.50 40.40 - 73.51 0.944 1.02 0.943 1.00 0.991
   9 31.91 22.10 - 46.06 27.30 19.11 - 39.00 0.546 0.86 0.544 0.85 0.534
   12 21.72 15.16 - 31.12 20.49 14.29 - 29.37 0.820 0.94 0.819 0.95 0.832
   24 12.36 7.72 - 19.81 9.86 6.58 - 14.76 0.468 0.80 0.464 0.78 0.430
  IL-4 5 3.95 2.83 - 5.52 5.64 4.18 - 7.62 0.117 1.43 0.115 1.49 0.078
   9 2.96 1.99 - 4.39 3.64 2.69 - 4.93 0.403 1.23 0.401 1.23 0.406
   12 2.49 1.81 - 3.44 2.65 1.93 - 3.64 0.785 1.06 0.783 1.08 0.747
   24 1.41 0.98 - 2.04 1.44 1.09 - 1.90 0.939 1.02 0.938 1.01 0.972
  IL-5 5 2.65 2.14 - 3.28 2.66 2.16 - 3.29 0.966 1.01 0.966 1.03 0.833
   9 2.57 1.97 - 3.35 2.16 1.73 - 2.69 0.310 0.84 0.307 0.84 0.313
   12 2.05 1.68 - 2.50 1.62 1.32 - 2.00 0.109 0.79 0.106 0.80 0.116
   24 2.15 1.87 - 2.46 1.97 1.75 - 2.22 0.349 0.92 0.346 0.92 0.351
  IL-13 5 0.81 0.66 - 0.99 0.78 0.61 - 0.99 0.811 0.96 0.810 0.97 0.858
   9 0.71 0.54 - 0.92 0.57 0.46 - 0.71 0.212 0.81 0.209 0.81 0.213
   12 0.56 0.45 - 0.69 0.41 0.32 - 0.52 0.052 0.73 0.050 0.74 0.068
   24 1.36 1.11 - 1.67 1.36 1.11 - 1.67 0.993 1.00 0.993 1.01 0.930
  IL-10 5 3.77 3.01 - 4.72 4.20 3.32 - 5.32 0.510 1.11 0.508 1.14 0.431
   9 3.94 3.00 - 5.16 3.56 2.94 - 4.30 0.540 0.90 0.538 0.89 0.483
   12 2.74 2.21 - 3.40 2.45 1.99 - 3.01 0.451 0.89 0.449 0.91 0.536
   24 2.53 2.00 - 3.19 2.40 1.80 - 3.20 0.781 0.95 0.779 1.00 0.997
  IL-7 5 3.79 3.13 - 4.59 3.37 2.80 - 4.04 0.379 0.89 0.376 0.91 0.465
   9 3.98 3.13 - 5.05 3.20 2.71 - 3.79 0.144 0.81 0.142 0.81 0.144
   12 3.01 2.55 - 3.54 2.33 1.96 - 2.79 0.038 0.78 0.037 0.78 0.043
   24 2.41 2.11 - 2.75 2.29 2.02 - 2.59 0.560 0.95 0.556 0.94 0.519
  IL-17 5 4.73 3.47 - 6.45 4.77 3.70 - 6.16 0.968 1.01 0.968 0.99 0.950
   9 3.72 2.86 - 4.84 2.87 2.22 - 3.72 0.167 0.77 0.164 0.78 0.169
   12 3.01 2.32 - 3.91 2.93 2.29 - 3.76 0.887 0.97 0.886 0.98 0.890
   24 5.56 4.37 - 7.08 4.28 3.26 - 5.61 0.152 0.77 0.149 0.76 0.134
  G-CSF 5 17.84 14.28 - 22.29 16.05 12.87 - 20.01 0.502 0.90 0.499 0.91 0.540
   9 13.85 10.91 - 17.57 12.32 9.98 - 15.19 0.464 0.89 0.462 0.89 0.467
   12 10.48 8.17 - 13.44 11.11 9.18 - 13.44 0.712 1.06 0.710 1.07 0.647
   24 27.96 23.58 - 33.16 22.21 19.14 - 25.76 0.044 0.79 0.042 0.79 0.043
  GM-CSF 5 18.29 11.87 - 28.19 19.95 13.03 - 30.54 0.777 1.09 0.776 1.12 0.712
   9 18.34 11.82 - 28.46 12.78 8.34 - 19.59 0.243 0.70 0.240 0.70 0.243
   12 10.62 7.05 - 16.00 8.10 5.37 - 12.24 0.356 0.76 0.353 0.77 0.363
   24 10.91 7.05 - 16.87 8.77 6.23 - 12.35 0.433 0.80 0.429 0.81 0.437
  MCP-1 5 43.17 36.47 - 51.10 46.18 38.41 - 55.51 0.594 1.07 0.592 1.08 0.547
   9 41.14 33.21 - 50.95 41.49 35.24 - 48.85 0.949 1.01 0.949 1.01 0.969
   12 39.93 33.47 - 47.62 32.71 27.32 - 39.16 0.118 0.82 0.116 0.82 0.122
   24 56.52 48.17 - 66.32 50.18 41.82 - 60.22 0.330 0.89 0.326 0.89 0.332
  MIP-1β 5 565.32 474.10 - 674.10 693.5 603.63 - 796.78 0.070 1.23 0.069 1.18 0.131
   9 402.91 342.05 - 474.60 456.4 387.36 - 537.80 0.287 1.13 0.285 1.13 0.291
   12 487.27 413.65 - 573.99 583.6 482.50 - 705.98 0.157 1.20 0.155 1.20 0.153
   24 618.41 515.94 - 741.22 593.8 494.69 - 712.89 0.754 0.96 0.752 0.96 0.770
  IL-8 5 200.40 148.28 - 270.82 238.2 183.74 - 308.79 0.389 1.19 0.386 1.15 0.489
   9 126.87 99.27 - 162.15 139.2 108.84 - 178.11 0.597 1.10 0.596 1.10 0.592
   12 183.34 143.44 - 234.33 228.4 174.16 - 299.56 0.236 1.25 0.234 1.24 0.244
   24 208.38 150.71 - 288.13 170.5 123.01 - 236.25 0.386 0.82 0.382 0.81 0.345
  1. The three analyses methods are presented and P values correspond to each one of these.
  2. * Linear regression
  3. Adjusted by previous episodes of clinical malaria
  4. T test
  5. § Proportional difference in cytokine/chemokine concentrations in SP-recipients in relation to placebo-recipients