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Table 2 Intracellular and plasma cytokines and chemokines by age, analyzed by multivariate random-effect models estimated by stepwise procedure and adjusted by previous episodes, current infection, IPTi treatment, gender and neighborhood of residence.

From: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine does not modify plasma cytokines and chemokines or intracellular cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum in Mozambican Children

Cytokines and chemokines Age (months) Proportional difference 95% CI P value* Overall P value
Intracellular IFN-γ 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.36 0.26; 0.48 < 0.0001  
   12 0.41 0.29; 0.57 < 0.0001  
   24 0.32 0.23; 0.45 < 0.0001  
  IL-10 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.45 0.37; 0.55 < 0.0001  
   12 0.63 0.50; 0.78 < 0.0001  
   24 0.92 0.74; 1.15 0.4700  
Plasma IL-2 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.74 0.58; 0.95 0.0193  
   12 0.47 0.37; 0.60 < 0.0001  
   24 0.38 0.29; 0.51 < 0.0001  
  IL-12 5 1 - - 0.0001
   9 0.87 0.69; 1.10 0.2428  
   12 0.63 0.50; 0.79 0.0001  
   24 1.02 0.79; 1.31 0.9070  
  IFN-γ 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.84 0.59; 1.21 0.3510  
   12 0.43 0.30; 0.61 < 0.0001  
   24 0.69 0.47; 1.03 0.0703  
  IL-1β 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.30 0.22; 0.40 < 0.0001  
   12 0.36 0.27; 0.48 < 0.0001  
   24 0.51 0.38; 0.70 < 0.0001  
  IL-6 5 1 - - 0.0001
   9 0.51 0.38; 0.68 < 0.0001  
   12 0.65 0.49; 0.87 0.0032  
   24 0.75 0.55; 1.03 0.0806  
  TNF 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.54 0.39; 0.73 0.0001  
   12 0.39 0.29; 0.53 < 0.0001  
   24 0.21 0.15; 0.30 < 0.0001  
  IL-4 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.69 0.53; 0.90 0.0073  
   12 0.54 0.41; 0.71 < 0.0001  
   24 0.31 0.23; 0.41 < 0.0001  
  IL-5 5 1 - - 0.0001
   9 0.88 0.75; 1.04 0.1450  
   12 0.68 0.58; 0.81 < 0.0001  
   24 0.77 0.65; 0.93 0.0056  
  IL-13 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.77 0.64; 0.92 0.0045  
   12 0.58 0.49; 0.70 < 0.0001  
   24 1.59 1.30; 1.94 < 0.0001  
  IL-10 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.85 0.71; 1.03 0.0941  
   12 0.60 0.50; 0.73 < 0.0001  
   24 0.53 0.43; 0.66 < 0.0001  
  IL-7 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.99 0.86; 1.15 0.9244  
   12 0.74 0.64; 0.86 < 0.0001  
   24 0.66 0.56; 0.77 < 0.0001  
  IL-17 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.68 0.54; 0.85 0.0009  
   12 0.63 0.50; 0.79 0.0001  
   24 1.05 0.82; 1.35 0.6774  
  G-CSF 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.77 0.64; 0.91 0.0032  
   12 0.64 0.53; 0.76 < 0.0001  
   24 1.50 1.24; 1.81 < 0.0001  
  GM-CSF 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.78 0.56; 1.09 0.1525  
   12 0.49 0.35; 0.68 < 0.0001  
   24 0.52 0.36; 0.75 0.0004  
  MCP-1 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.92 0.80; 1.06 0.2724  
   12 0.80 0.70; 0.93 0.0025  
   24 1.22 1.04; 1.42 0.0156  
  MIP-1β 5 1 - - < 0.0001
   9 0.68 0.58; 0.80 < 0.0001  
   12 0.85 0.73; 1.00 0.0437  
   24 0.98 0.82; 1.16 0.7803  
  IL-8 5 1 - - 0.0003
   9 0.60 0.47; 0.77 0.0001  
   12 0.94 0.73; 1.20 0.6171  
   24 0.89 0.68; 1.17 0.3991  
  1. Intracellular IL-4 is not included (null model). The first P value corresponds to the comparison in between ages and the second corresponds to the overall comparison.
  2. * Each age in relation to 5 months