The role of MAPK in CSN1S1 induced cellular differentiation. a. Effect of ERK1/2-, p38-, and JNK-Inhibitor (I) on cellular viability of primary human monocytes. b. Significant suppression of LPS-induced IL-1b-mRNA production by addition of ERK1/2-, p38-, and JNK-I (mean and SD of 4 experiments, p < 0.05, t-test). c-e. surface marker expression in primary human monocytes stimulated with 10 μg/ml CSN1S1 (c), M-CSF (d), and GM-CSF (e) for 24 h in the presence of indicated MAPK-I (mean and SD of 4 experiments. * p < 0.05, ANOVA with Bonferroni correction). f, g. Secretion of IL-1b (f) and IL-6 (g) protein into supernatants of primary human monocytes stimulated with CSN1S1 and indicated MAPK-I (mean and SD of 4 experiments. * p < 0.05, ANOVA with Bonferroni correction). h. Western-blot of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated (p-) p38-, JNK, and ERK-MAPK molecules in cell lysates of primary human monocytes stimulated for 24 h with 10 μg/ml CSN1S1. Images from P38 blots are separated, because protein samples were loaded in two pockets separated by an empty pocket due to blending of bands when adjacent pockets were used.