hMSCs suppress proinflammatory cytokine production induced by SEB in vivo. (A-D) Levels of IFNγ (A), IL-2 (B), IL-6 (C) and TNF (D) were measured from serum collected at the indicated times after SEB was injected in mice pre-treated with hMSCs (white) or PBS as a control (black). Each bar represents a mean + SEM. Statistical differences between the PBS and hMSC groups were assessed by 2-way ANOVA (p=0.6322 (A), p=0.0014 (B), p=0.0011 (C), p=0.0149 (D), n=5/group/time). Data are representative of two independent experiments. (E-H) Serum levels of IFNγ (E), IL-2 (F) and IL-6 (G) and TNF (H) at 2hr post-SEB injection were compared between PBS and hMSC groups. Statistical differences were assessed by the Mann–Whitney test. Data represent a pooled result of two independent experiments. n.s.=not significant.