Lipid loading does not induce activation of PPAR-γ. Macrophages were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 5% LPDS ± 50 μg/mL LDL or ac-LDL. Half of the cells were then stimulated with TNF (10 ng/mL) for 2 h. Nuclear extracts were prepared and PPAR-γ binding activities were determined in the extracts. The arrowhead indicates the position of specific complexes. Lanes: 1, control; 2, TNF; 3, LDL; 4, LDL + TNF; 5, ac-LDL; 6, ac-LDL + TNF; 7, ox-LDL; 8, ox-LDL + TNF. Similar data were obtained in three separate experiments.