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Table 2 Histological and Immunohistochemical studies in Contact Dermatitis

From: Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

Subjects Contact agents Total number of inflammatory cells in dermis (mm2) DERMIS
     Number of leukocytes (%) CCL21 expression in LEC*
   Normal skin Inflamed skin Perivascular infiltrate Non-perivascular infiltrate  
     MC PC MC PC  
Control skin
Normal skin from all patients - - ND ND ND ND 1
GN Patch alone 436 468 224 (47.9) 96 (20.5) 76 (16.2) 72 (15.4) 1
Haptens
PF Nickel 117 652 512 (78.5) 16 (2.4) 104 (16.0) 20 (3.1) 3
GL Peru Balsam 44 1104 496 (44.9) 60 (5.4) 448 (40.6) 100 (9.1) 3
Chemical irritants
RL SLS 10% 292 988 152 (15.4) 392 (39.7) 43 (4.4) 404 (40.9) 2
EY Toluene 568 1200 468 (39.0) 168 (14.0) 168 (14.0) 396 (33.0) 3
AR Trichloroacetic acid 432 952 300 (31.5) 132 (13.9) 48 (5.0) 472 (49.6) 2
CL Sodium Hypochlorite 540 948 108 (11.4) 160 (16.9) 96 (10.1) 584 (61.6) 3
SD Salicylic Acid 324 608 276 (45.4) 116 (19.1) 32 (5.3) 184 (30.3) 2
CM Sodium Hydroxide 616 1108 40 (3.6) 236 (21.3) 60 (5.4) 776 (70.0) 2
PC Glycolic Acid 688 1768 191 (10.8) 1093 (61.8) 19 (1.1) 463 (26.2) 2
KM Benzalkonium chloride 488 1268 416 (32.8) 634 (5.0) 112 (8.8) 676 (53.3) 3
Physical irritants
KR Tape striping 352 988 268 (27.1) 232 (23.5) 108 (10.9) 380 (38.5) 1
EE Liquid Nitrogen 192 1824 111 (6.1) 396 (21.7) 77 (4.2) 1240 (68.0) 3
MA Rue + UVA 304 344 184 (53.5) 48 (13.9) 8 (2.3) 104 (30.2) 3
Statistical differences caused by exposure to irritant agents (p values) p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05  
KINETIC STUDY
AJ-10 h SLS 10% 204 372 132 (35.5) 80 (21.5) 44 (11.8) 120 (32.2) 2
AJ-48 h SLS 10% 204 1032 548 (53.1) 124 (12.0) 124 (12.0) 236 (22.9) 3
AJ-96 h SLS 10% 204 308 80 (62.5) 4 (3.1) 36 (28.1) 8 (6.2) 1
AJ-168 h SLS 10% 204 456 512 (78.5) 16 (2.4) 104 (15.9) 20 (3.1) 1
  1. *CCL21 expression was semi-quantified as 0 = negative; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; 3 = strong. Abbreviations: SLS, sodium lauryl sulphate; MC, mononuclear cells; PC, polymorphonuclear cells; ND, not done.