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Figure 2 | BMC Immunology

Figure 2

From: Direct and indirect effects of retinoic acid on human Th2 cytokine and chemokine expression by human T lymphocytes

Figure 2

ATRA facilitates type 2 and inhibits type 1 cytokine switching even in cultures favoring Th1 or Th2 polarization. IL-5 and IFN-(proteins were quantitated by ELISA in supernatants of 48 h, anti-CD3 mAb (200 ng/ml)-activated PBMC (2.5 × 106/ml) treated with ETOH (□) or ATRA 10-7 M (■) under control (irrelevant isotype control mAb), Th1 (IL-12 and anti-IL-4 mAb) or Th2 (IL-4 and anti-IL-12) as described in the Methods. A representative experiment of three performed is shown and the results are expressed as pg/ml for IFN-(and IL-5. As the degree of IL-4 and IL-12 stimulation varied between donors, the data was not able to be pooled and analyzed statistically; however, all of the donors examined demonstrated similar patterns of enhancement and inhibition as shown in the current graph.

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