ATRA upregulates the expression of Th2 transcription factors within anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated T cells. Taqman® semi-quantitative PCR for the Th2 transcription factors, GATA-3, STAT6 and c-MAF, and the Th1 transcription factor, T-bet, were examined using total cellular RNA derived from 2, 6 and 24 hour stimulated anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated T cells (2.5 × 106/ml) treated with ETOH or ATRA (10-7 M). In addition, IL-4 and GAPDH assessments were also performed. Values obtained for each cytokine message was normalized to that obtained for GAPDH in the same sample as described in the Methods. The normalized values were then expressed as a function of the ETOH control sample. The data shown is representative of two donors examined.