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Table 1 Effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA on human type 1 and type 2 cytokine expression by human PBMC post TCR stimulationa.

From: Direct and indirect effects of retinoic acid on human Th2 cytokine and chemokine expression by human T lymphocytes

Cytokine Controla ATRAa 9-cis-RAa Significancec
IL-4 (pg/ml) 36 ± 15 79 ± 9 73 ± 14 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.0003
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.010
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IL-5 (pg/ml) 174 ± 39 579 ± 193 596 ± 179 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.034
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.019
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IL-10 (pg/ml) 182 ± 13 172 ± 31 148 ± 31 Control vs ATRA, NS
Control vs 9-cis-RA, NS
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IL-13 (ng/ml) 1.10 ± 0.15 1.80 ± 0.26 1.90 ± 0.25 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.0003
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.010
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IFN-γ (ng/ml) 14.5 ± 3.4 7.4 ± 1.9 6.1 ± 1.5 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.0077
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.0065
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IL-12 (pg/ml) 243 ± 35 61 ± 12 50 ± 10 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.0002
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.0003
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
IL-15 (pg/ml) 100 ± 6 111 ± 10 113 ± 7 Control vs ATRA, NS
Control vs 9-cis-RA, NS
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, NS
TNF-α (ng/ml) 6.38 ± 1.04 2.86 ± 0.31 2.13 ± 0.36 Control vs ATRA, p = 0.0030
Control vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.0006
ATRA vs 9-cis-RA, p = 0.049
  1. a Supernatants of anti-CD3 mAb(200 ng/ml)-activated human PBMC (2.5 × 106/ml) treated with ETOH, ATRA (10-7 M), or 9-cis-RA (10-7 M) for 48 h were examined for the expression of various cytokines by ELISA analysis.
  2. b The results are expressed either as ng/ml or pg/ml ± SD (as designated in the cytokine column above). The data and statistical calculations were performed with data derived from at least 5 different donors.
  3. c The data was analyzed for equality of variance using Fischer's F test. If the variance was heterogeneous, the appropriate transformation of the data was performed. A two-tailed paired T test was then used to determine statistical significance. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analysis.