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Table 2 Effects of ATRA on human chemokine and inflammatory cytokine expression by human PBMC post TCR stimulationa.

From: Direct and indirect effects of retinoic acid on human Th2 cytokine and chemokine expression by human T lymphocytes

Cytokine (pg/ml) Controlb ATRAb Significancec
IL-8 0.42 ± 0.13 0.62 ± 0.15 p = 0.002c
MIP-1α 90.1 ± 18.1 60.0 ± 14.7 NS
RANTES 2.1 ± 0.92 1.8 ± 0.89 p = 0.01c
MCP-1 65.4 ± 23.3 107.4 ± 29.2 p = 0.006c
IL-1β 1.7 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.20 p = 0.02c
IL-6 31.0 ± 7.2 13.7 ± 3.7 p = 0.007c
IL-17 1.8 ± 0.52 1.7 ± 0.56 NS
GM-CSF 3.4 ± 2.3 3.2 ± 2.5 NS
G-CSF 2.2 ± 0.76 1.2 ± 0.24 p = 0.04c
IFN-α 2.4 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 0.93 NS
  1. a Anti-CD3 antibody(200 ng/ml)-activated human PBMC (2.5 × 106/ml) derived from at least 5 different donors were treated with either ETOH or ATRA (10-7 M) for 48 h after which the supernatants were examined for the expression of various chemokines and cytokines by ELISA and multiplex analysis.
  2. b The results are expressed as the average cytokine value in ng/ml ± SD. The data and statistical calculations were performed with data derived from at least 5 different donors.
  3. c The data was analyzed for equality of variance using Fischer's F test. If the variance was heterogeneous, the appropriate transformation of the data was performed. A two-tailed paired T test was then used to determine statistical significance. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analysis. NS = not significant.