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Table 3 ATRA increases the frequency of human Th2 cytokine producing T cells post TCR stimulationa.

From: Direct and indirect effects of retinoic acid on human Th2 cytokine and chemokine expression by human T lymphocytes

Culture Conditions IL-4b IL-5b IFN-γc, d
Media 138 ± 35 322 ± 26 489 ± 57
EtOH 156 ± 18 312 ± 38 552 ± 82
ATRA 464 ± 52* 685 ± 47* 384 ± 26*
  1. a Purified human T cells (1 × 104, 5 × 104 or 1 × 105) were cultured in 96-well cytokine antibody-coated ELISPOT plates for 48 h in the presence or absence of anti-CD3 mAb. After incubation, the plates were washed and developed according to the manufacturer's instructions (as described in the Methods).
  2. b The results are expressed as the mean number of spots per 105 T cells ± SD. Based on the differences in the degree of stimulation in response to anti-CD3 mAb between the three donors examined by ELISPOT, only data from a representative donor is shown in this Table.
  3. c These ELISPOT data are in agreement with and support the intracellular cytokine flow cytometric analysis we also where we observed a decrease in the percentage of T cells derived from several donors (n > 3) staining for IFN-γ in cultures treated with either ATRA (5.2%) or 9-cis-RA (6.3%) when compared to control T cells (15.8%).
  4. d A two-tailed paired T test was used to determine statistical significance with * indicating p < 0.05.