AMD3100 treatment inhibits leukocyte infiltration and development of diabetes in NOD mice. A. Immunohistological staining of pancreatic sections of NOD mice. The pancreas of prediabetic, diabetic NOD mice or prediabetic NOD mice that have been given AMD3100 for 8 days were fixed and embedded. Parallel tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E, top panel), anti-glucagon (middle panel) or anti-insulin (bottom panel) antibodies. Note lymphocyte infiltration in the islets of prediabetic NOD mouse without AMD3100 treatment. B. Percentage of insulitis in pancreatic sections of 15 week-old prediabetic NOD mice that were given daily with PBS (n = 8) or AMD3100 (n = 6) for 8 days. *p < 0.01. C and D. Comparison of diabetes incidence in NOD mice that were given AMD3100 or PBS for 3 weeks (C) or 14 weeks (D), starting at 15–16 weeks of age. Number of mice in each group (n) is shown. Mice are scored as diabetic when glucose level in the urine reaches 500 mg/dl. p < 0.01.