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Table 2 Methods used for comparing

From: Evaluation of regression methods when immunological measurements are constrained by detection limits

Methods Description Software Disadvantage
Deletion Remove NDs. Any statistical package Bias
DL/2 Substitute each ND with half of the value of DL. Any statistical package Large RMSE for large proportion of NDs
ROS After computing a linear regression for data versus their normalized scores below-DL values are extrapolated under distributional assumption. R-package NADA [24, 27] Underestimation of variance for large proportion of NDs
MI Estimation of mean and standard deviation by MLE. Creating 10 complete samples. Pool the results from 10 individual analyses. R (software available on request) Bias for small proportion of NDs
TOBIT Parametric estimation method for incorporating NDs. R, Stata [28], SAS [29] Sensitive to heteroscedastic errors
LOGIT Create binary dependent variable of NDs (0s) and detects (1s). Any statistical package Loss of information & parameter estimates are less interpretable