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Table 2 Baseline demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics and B cell subset distribution (IgD and CD27 classification) in VERA and ERA patients according to response to therapy (i.e. remission) at 24 weeks of follow-up

From: Memory B cell subsets and plasmablasts are lower in early than in long-standing Rheumatoid Arthritis

Variables DAS remission No DAS remission Univariate analysis; p value Multivariate analysis; OR (95% CI) CDAI remission No CDAI remission Univariate analysis; p value Multivariate analysis; OR (95% CI)
N. 32 29    20 41   
Age, years 47.0 ± 15.2 61.5 ± 10.3 <0.001 0.92 (0.87-0.97) 50.2 ± 15.7 55.7 ± 14.3 0.21  
Sex, n. female, n. (%) 26 (81.3) 26 (89.7) 0.36   16 (80.0) 36 (87.8) 0.42  
VERA, n. (%) 13 (40.6) 9 (31.0) 0.44   11 (55.0) 11 (26.8) 0.03 8.89 (1.79-44.2)
Anti-TNF therapy 10 (31.3) 6 (20.7) 0.40   8 (40.0) 8 (19.5) 0.09  
ESR, mm/1^hour 33.6 ± 23.2 54.0 ± 35.2 0.02 1.00 (0.96-1.04) 41.5 ± 30.3 54.0 ± 35.2 0.58  
CRP, mg/l 11.3 ± 18.2 32.7 ± 45.9 0.01 0.98 (0.95-1.01) 18.7 ± 36.8 32.7 ± 45.9 0.23  
DAS 3.1 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.1 0.05 0.58 (0.21-1.57) 3.2 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.1 0.13 0.34 (0.14-0.83)
CDAI 24.3 ± 12.4 28.7 ± 14.3 0.36   23.7 ± 11.4 27.7 ± 14.3 0.32  
ACPA positivity, n. (%) 23 (71.9) 15 (51.7) 0.11 2.21 (0.57-8.66) 16 (80.0) 22 (53.7) 0.05 2.05 (0.36-11.6)
RF-IgM positivity, n. (%) 20 (62.5) 15 (51.7) 0.40   14 (70.0) 21 (51.2) 0.16  
RF-IgA positivity, n. (%) 12 (37.5) 11 (37.9) 0.97   8 (40.0) 15 (36.6) 0.80  
BAFF, pg/ml 878.3 ± 430.2 819.7 ± 265.3 0.77   991.0 ± 484.3 780.8 ± 264.1 0.08 1.002 (1.000-1.004)
IL6 (pg/ml) 13.4 ± 20.4 22.3 ± 24.8 0.02 1.02 (0.98-1.06) 18.0 ± 24.0 17.5 ± 22.5 0.79  
CD19+/IgD + CD27+, % 8.3 ± 8.2 13.7 ± 18.7 0.25   7.3 ± 8.3 12.6 ± 16.3 0.08 1.03 (0.90-1.17)
CD19+/IgD + CD27-, % 67.5 ± 13.6 57.0 ± 17.2 0.01 1.06 (1.01-1.11) 68.7 ± 11.6 59.5 ± 17.3 0.03 1.09 (1.02-1.17)
CD19+/IgD-CD27+, % 15.2 ± 7.7 19.3 ± 8.8 0.08 1.06 (0.92-1.22) 14.6 ± 7.7 18.4 ± 8.5 0.09 1.09 (0.88-1.33)
CD19+/IgD-CD27-, % 7.2 ± 4.7 7.4 ± 4.2 0.58   7.7 ± 5.0 7.1 ± 4.2 0.47  
CD19+/CD38 + CD27+, % 2.0 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 5.4 0.84   1.8 ± 1.4 2.9 ± 4.8 0.94  
CD19+/ZAP70+, % 5.9 ± 7.4 4.1 ± 3.3 0.86   6.5 ± 8.1 4.3 ± 4.4 0.18  
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated. The values in bold are those that arose as significant in univariate and multivariate analyses. ERA: early rheumatoid arthritis; LSRA: long-standing rheumatoid arthritis; VERA: very early rheumatoid arthritis; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP: C-reactive protein; DAS: disease activity score; ACPA: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies; RF: rheumatoid factor.