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Table 2 Baseline levels of cytokines in patients at baseline vs. controls, and baseline vs. follow-up levels in patients

From: IL-17 and IL-23 in lupus nephritis - association to histopathology and response to treatment

  Patients, baseline median (range) Patients, follow-up median (range) Controls median (range) p
IL-6, pg/ml 10.02 (0.62-81.78)   2.18 (0.62-4.64) <0.001
   3.29 (0.62-30.72)   <0.001
IL-10, pg/ml 9.78 (0.54-81.04)   0.54 (0.54-3.90) <0.001
   4.95 (0.54-37.21)   <0.002
TNF-α, pg/ml 1.24 (0.55-12.51)   0.55 (0.55-4.29) 0.10
   1.00 (0.55-78.22)   0.27
IFN-γ, pg/ml 7.05 (0.52-338.9)   0.52 (0.52-8.97) 0.03
   6.63 (0.52-278.2)   0.75
IL-17, pg/ml 97.42 (3.30-381.6)   3.30 (3.30-62.66) <0.001
   47.98 (3.30-824.5)   0.01
IL-23, pg/ml 5.52 (0.66-121.5)   0.66 (0.66-0.66) <0.001
   3.27 (0.66-32.67)   0.06
TGF-β, ng/ml 42.99 (10.22-85.94)   82.71 (57.80-119.1) <0.001
   49.46 (25.04-121.7)   0.005
  1. Values are given as medians (range).