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Table 2 Effects of propolis administration to diabetic mice on the plasma levels of glucose, insulin and cytokines

From: Oral supplementation of diabetic mice with propolis restores the proliferation capacity and chemotaxis of B and T lymphocytes towards CCL21 and CXCL12 by modulating the lipid profile, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress

Parameters Control mice Diabetic mice Diabetic mice supplemented with propolis
Blood glucose (mg/dl) 119 ± 14 368 ± 22* 244 ± 18# +
Insulin (ng/ml) 5.2 ± 0.45 1.8 ± 0.2* 3.4 ± 0.35# +
WBCs count (103/μl) 15.4 ± 1.2 8.5 ± 0.8* 14 ± 0.18#
Lymphocytes (%) 77 ± 6.5 49 ± 5* 72 ± 7.4#
Monocytes (%) 5 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.75
Neutrophils (%) 21.4 ± 3.1 21.5 ± 3.4 22 ± 2.8
IL-1 β (pg/ml) 37 ± 4 144 ± 12* 78 ± 9.2# +
IL-6 (pg/ml) 23 ± 3.4 79 ± 9* 49 ± 6# +
TNF-α (pg/ml) 17 ± 2.2 64 ± 8.2* 42 ± 4.8# +
IL-2 (pg/ml) 111 ± 9.6 44 ± 7* 101 ± 9.2#
IL-7 (pg/ml) 129 ± 11 34 ± 4.8* 119 ± 10#
IL-4 (pg/ml) 44 ± 5.5 11 ± 1.5* 43 ± 4.9#
IL-8 (pg/ml) 66 ± 8.5 69 ± 7.6 70 ± 7.8
IL-10 (pg/ml) 84 ± 9.4 78.6 ± 8.2 86 ± 9.5
  1. The plasma levels of glucose, insulin and cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured in the 3 groups of mice at the end of the experiments. The pooled data for 10 mice from each group are expressed as the mean value for each parameter ± SEM
  2. * P < 0.05 for diabetic vs. control
  3. # P < 0.05 for diabetic + propolis vs. diabetic
  4. + P < 0.05 for diabetic + propolis versus control (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-test)