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Table 1 Participant demographic information and baseline symptom and medical profile

From: Evidence for abnormal cytokine expression in Gulf War Illness: A preliminary analysis of daily immune monitoring data

Participant Group Age (yrs) Ethnicity Alcohol intake/week (standard drinks) Liver disease Average pain (0–10 NRS) HADS Anxiety score HADS Depression score Fatigue mean ± .d. WBC K/μL Platelets K/μL CRP mg/dL ESR mm/hr ANAS TSH mIU/L RHF
1 HV 47 Caucasian 9 neg. 0 1 1 0 ± 0 6.3 242 <0.2 0 neg. 1.11 neg.
2 HV 50 Asian 1 neg. 0 0 1 0 ± 0 4.7 219 <0.2 1 neg. 1.24 neg.
3 HV 42 Caucasian 15 neg. 1 1 3 17 ± 6 5.1 218 <0.2 0 neg. 0.86 neg.
4 HV 41 Caucasian 6 neg. 0 6 1 0 ± 0 7.3 212 <0.2 4 neg. 1.04 neg.
5 HV 57 Caucasian 0 neg. 0 2 0 2 ± 3 6.3 239 0.8 30 neg. 0.96 neg.
6 HV 54 Caucasian 1 neg. 3 14 11 65 ± 25 7.0 234 <0.2 5 neg. 1.83 neg.
7 HV 44 Caucasian 1 neg. 2 5 4 0 ± 0 9.4 189 0.5 5 neg. 2.42 neg.
8 HV 48 Latino 0 neg. 0 3 1 5 ± 16 7.9 332 0.6 2 neg. 0.96 neg.
9 GWI 41 Caucasian 42* neg. 6 8 7 50 ± 14 10.1 262 0.2 1 1:80 1.27 neg.
10 GWI 42 Caucasian 1 neg. 2 11 10 25 ± 15 6.6 212 <0.2 2 neg. 1.98 neg.
11 GWI 44 Pacific Islander 1* neg. 2 6 7 65 ± 12 12.3 284 1.0 1 neg. 2.22 neg.
12 GWI 48 Caucasian 0 neg. 5 8 3 37 ± 15 7.4 256 <0.2 2 neg. 1.49 neg.
13 GWI 48 Asian 0 neg. 2 11 6 11 ± 11 4.4 188 <0.2 9 neg. 1.90 neg.
14 GWI 47 Caucasian 7 neg. 2 5 1 21 ± 16 5.8 191 <0.2 2 neg. 1.08 neg.
15 GWI 43 Caucasian 6 neg. 3 9 4 24 ± 19 5.3 278 <0.2 2 neg. 0.63 neg.
  1. Except for fatigue, all data shown were obtained during each participant’s screening session. Fatigue means and standard deviations were calculated for each participant from the self-report scores provided during the immune-monitoring phase. HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score. Blood test results include white blood cell count (WBC), platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), antinuclear antibody test (ANA), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and rheumatoid factor test (RHF). Neg. = negative. *Participant 9 currently diagnosed with alcohol addiction; participant 11 recovered from alcohol addiction. There was no significant difference in alcohol intake between the healthy (median = 1; IQR = 6) and the GWI (median = 1; IQR = 7) groups (U = 27.0, p = 0.955). There was a significant difference in HADS-Anxiety (t = −2.254, p = 0.042) between HV (mean = 4.0, sd = 4.5) and GWI (mean = 8.3, sd = 2.3), but not for depression (t = −1.559, p = 0.143)