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Fig. 2 | BMC Immunology

Fig. 2

From: Mesenchymal stromal cells to modulate immune reconstitution early post-hematopoietic cell transplantation

Fig. 2

Potential mechanisms of MSC potentiation of engraftment. Pre-clinical studies (in vivo small animal and in vitro with human MSCs) suggest that MSCs function via interaction with other immune cells (Fig. 2 a) and with donor CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs; Fig. 2 b). MSCs may inhibit activated residual recipient immune cells, in particular T lymphocytes and natural killer cells which are known to be drivers of HCT rejection, and/or may promote other regulatory immune cell populations, such as regulatory T cells. As shown in Fig. 2a, some potential mechanisms of this former effect are demonstrated, including cell-cell interaction (such as through B7H1 or B7DC/PD1 on MSCs) or secretion of small molecules (such as PGE-2 through COX2, kynurenine through IDO, and IL-10). MSC likely interact with HSCs through cell-cell interactions, which more likely occur before HSCs reach the bone marrow niche and may lead to HSCs being directed to the niche and/or to increased HSC survival (Fig. 2b)

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