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Table 1 Demographic data and the small-bowel mucosal and serological findings of patients participating in the study

From: Small-intestinal TG2-specific plasma cells at different stages of coeliac disease

  Prospectively studied coeliac patients
(n = 15)
Long-term treated coeliac patients
(n = 31)
Disease controls
(n = 25)
CD prior to atrophy
n = 14
Overt CD
n = 15
1 year GFD
n = 11
Patients in remission
n = 15
Non-responding CD
n = 11
Patients with dietary lapses
n = 5
Gluten sensitivity
n = 18
Dyspepsia
n = 7
Female; n (%) 10 (71) 10 (67) 7 (64) 10 (67) 7 (64) 5 (100) 16 (89) 1 (14)
Age; median (range), years 55 (16–70) 55 (17–71) 57 (28–72) 59 (24–66) 49 (40–76) 51 (31–77) 49 (24–65) 47 (24–76)
Duration of GFD; median (range), years 0 0 1 (1–1) 8 (3–34) 7 (3–24) 10 (9–17) 0 0
HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8-positive; n (%) 14 (100) 15 (100) 11 (100) 15 (100) 11 (100) 4a (100) 9 (50) 1 (14)
EmA; median (range), titer 1:100 (0–1:2000) 1:100 (0–1:4000) 0 (0–1:50) 0 (0) 0 (0–1:5) 1:200 (0–1:2000) 0 (0) 0 (0)
TG2 abs; median (range), U/ml 9.4 (3.3- > 100) 11.9 (4.2- > 100) 3.9 (0–8.6) 0.5 (0–2.8) 1.3 (0–9.9) 56.9 (12.9- > 100) 1.4 (0–4.1) 0.6 (0–2.8)
Mucosal TG2-IgA deposits present; n (%) 14 (100) 14a (100) 7b (88) 5 (33) 10a (100) 3c (100) 4 (22) 0 (100)
Vh/CrD; mean (95% CI), ratio 2.9 (2.6–3.1) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 3.4 (2.4–4.5) 3.4 (3.2–3.6) 0.2 (0.0–0.4) 0.5 (−0.3–1.3) 3.5 (3.0–4.1) 3.5 (3.0–4.1)
CD3+ IELs; median
(range), cells/mm
54 (12–79) 67 (38–116) 39 (23–80) 42 (25–77) 60 (30–109) 50 (38–69) 21 (7–59) 26 (16–40)
αβ+ IELs; median
(range), cells/mm
30 (12–50) 43 (21–75) 22 (14–43) 31 (20–46) 44 (26–105) 38 (35–56) 16 (5–26) 22 (17–31)
γδ+ IELs; median
(range), cells/mm
18.8 (0–38.5) 23.7 (14–58.7) v13.6 (1.4–56.3) 14.0 (7.3–27.8) 12.1 (0–37.8) 13.0 (4.4–20.5) 2.7 (0–10.2) 1.6 (0.7–16.1)
  1. abs antibodies, CD coeliac disease, CI confidence interval, EmA endomysial antibodies, GFD gluten-free diet, GS gluten sensitive; IgA immunoglobulin A; IELs intraepithelial lymphocytes; TG2-abs, transglutaminase 2 antibodies; Vh/CrD villous height crypt depth ratio
  2. Reference values set at 2.0 for Vh/CrD, 37 cells/mm for CD3+ IELs, 25 cells/mm for αβ+ IELs, and 4.3 cell/mm for γδ+ IELs (Järvinen et al., [15])
  3. Cut-off value for TG2 antibodies ≥ 5 AU/ml
  4. aData missing from one patient
  5. bData missing from three patients
  6. cData missing from two patients