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Table 1 Characteristics of HIV-1-infected patients and healthy controls

From: Foxp3+Helios+ regulatory T cells are associated with monocyte subsets and their PD-1 expression during acute HIV-1 infection

  Healthy controls Acute HIV-1-infected patients Chronic cART-naïve HIV-1-infected patients Chronic HIV-1-infected patients with cART
Cases, no 36 36 28 32
Age (years) 28.3 (21–46) 29.5 (20–48) 28.7 (20–47) 29.2 (21–46)
HIV-RNA (copies/ml) NA 316,924.7 (2409–6,313,483) 26,934.1 (567–147,548) TND
CD4 (cells/μl) 748 (328–1506) 470 (215–762) 311 (134–638) 672 (318–1280)
CD4/CD8 ratio 1.13 (0.43–2.16) 0.49 (0.1–1.13) 0.33 (0.11–0.68) 0.75 (0.29–1.57)
  1. Data are presented as the means with ranges
  2. Abbreviations: cART combined antiretroviral therapy, NA not available, TND target not detected