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Cellular immunology and immune regulation

Section edited by J Philip McCoy

This section aims to publish studies concerned with the immunological activities of cells and on the interactions among cells and molecules of the immune system, which spans studies in development, differentiation, effector function, and memory. The section also welcomes submissions on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating and autoimmune disease and its immune response is not fully elucidated. This study was conducted to examine the pathological changes and B cell subsets in experimental aut...

    Authors: Yingqiong Xiong, Shaomin Cheng, Xiaomu Wu, Yue Ren and Xufang Xie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:24

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Both antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells are essential for the maintenance of humoral immunity. To date, limit studies have focused on the two populations in Kawasaki disease (KD). To address th...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Yanfang Jiang, Jinghua Wang, Jinxiang Liu, Congcong Liu, Deying Liu and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:16

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system and are subclassed into CD56BrightCD16Dim/− and CD56DimCD16+ NK cells. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is fundamental to regulate a numb...

    Authors: Cassandra Balinas, Helene Cabanas, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:14

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we demonstrated up-regulated activated CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as up-regulated cytotoxic NK cells in the blood of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, w...

    Authors: Li Zhu, Mostafa Aly, Ruben Jeremias Kuon, Bettina Toth, Haihao Wang, Hristos Karakizlis, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Eman Ibrahim, Naruemol Ekpoom, Gerhard Opelz and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:10

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Systemic inflammation and the fever response to pathogens are coordinately regulated by IL-6 and IL-1β. We previously showed that CEACAM1 regulates the LPS driven expression of IL-1β in murine neutrophils thro...

    Authors: Zhifang Zhang, Deirdre La Placa, Tung Nguyen, Maciej Kujawski, Keith Le, Lin Li and John E. Shively

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:7

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are extensively used for research of immune cell functions, identification of biomarkers and development of diagnostics and therapeutics for human diseases, amo...

    Authors: Adriana Navas, Lina Giraldo-Parra, Miguel Darío Prieto, Juliana Cabrera and María Adelaida Gómez

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:5

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  7. Content type: Research article

    T cell activation induces ER stress and upregulates Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α), an activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Inhibition of IRE1α RNase activity in activated CD4+ spl...

    Authors: Cody Poe, Cheyanne Youngblood, Karissa Hodge and Kyeorda Kemp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:3

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human i...

    Authors: Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla and Larisa Y. Poluektova

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:2

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Circulating follicular helper T (cTfh) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that express the CXC-chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). These cells exhibit immune activities by inducing B cell differentiation an...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Yanfang Jiang, Jian Zhang, Yan Zheng, Deying Liu, Lishuang Guo and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:43

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages are crucial players in a variety of inflammatory responses to environmental cues. However, it has been widely reported that macrophages cause chronic inflammation and are involved in a variety of d...

    Authors: Yuta Sugiyama, Yukari Hiraiwa, Yuichiro Hagiya, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka and Shun-ichiro Ogura

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:41

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  11. Content type: Methodology article

    Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, a...

    Authors: Qin Chen, Shengping Qiu, Huanhuan Li, Chaolong Lin, Yong Luo, Wenfeng Ren, Yidi Zou, Yale Wang, Ninghshao Xia and Chenghao Huang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:35

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Excretory-secretory products released by Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (EgPSC-ESPs) are well-known to regulate T cell responses. However, their direct influence on the differentiation of B cell subsets re...

    Authors: Wei Pan, Hui-wen Xu, Wen-ting Hao, Fen-fen Sun, Yan-fang Qin, Shan-shan Hao, Hua Liu, Jian-ping Cao, Yu-juan Shen and Kui-yang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:29

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Agonists of TLR3 and TLR4 are effective immunoadjuvants for different types of vaccines. The mechanisms of their immunostimulatory action differ significantly; these differences are particularly critical for i...

    Authors: Ekaterina Lebedeva, Alexander Bagaev, Alexey Pichugin, Marina Chulkina, Andrei Lysenko, Irina Tutykhina, Maxim Shmarov, Denis Logunov, Boris Naroditsky and Ravshan Ataullakhanov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:26

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In many clinical cases of extensive liver resection (e.g. due to malignancy), the residual portion is too small to maintain the body homeostasis. The resulting acute liver failure is associated with the compen...

    Authors: Andrey V. Elchaninov, Timur Kh. Fatkhudinov, Natalia Y. Usman, Evgeniya Y. Kananykhina, Irina V. Arutyunyan, Andrey V. Makarov, Anastasia V. Lokhonina, Irina Z. Eremina, Viktor V. Surovtsev, Dmitry V. Goldshtein, Galina B. Bolshakova, Valeria V. Glinkina and Gennady T. Sukhikh

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:23

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Deficits in disorders of humoral immunity associated with a deficit of antibodies are the most common primary immunodeficiency. Total IgG and IgG subclasses measurements are used to diagnose, differentiate and...

    Authors: Gerard Pasternak, Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska and Katarzyna Pentoś

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:22

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the crit...

    Authors: Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan and Yong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:18

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  17. Content type: Review

    Cancer immunoprevention is based on the fact that a functioning immune system controls tumor onset and development in humans and animals, thus leading to the idea that the enhancement of immune responses in he...

    Authors: Arianna Palladini, Lorena Landuzzi, Pier-Luigi Lollini and Patrizia Nanni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:16

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The potency of T regulatory (TREG) cells to inhibit T helper (Th)-driven immune cell responses has been linked to increased intracellular cyclic-AMP (cAMP) levels of TREG cells. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven al...

    Authors: Kari J. Dugger, Taylor Chrisman, Sarah L. Sayner, Parker Chastain, Kacie Watson and Robert Estes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:9

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk betwe...

    Authors: Tammy Oth, Thomas H. P. M. Habets, Wilfred T. V. Germeraad, Marijke I. Zonneveld, Gerard M. J. Bos and Joris Vanderlocht

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:8

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  20. Content type: Research article

    As a factor contributing to the tumor cell drug resistance, tumor microenvironment (TME) is being paid increasingly attention. However, the drug resistance of malignantly transformed cells in TME has rarely be...

    Authors: Xifeng Fei, Anqi Wang, Delin Wang, Xan Meng, Jiawei Ma, Lei Hong, Ruwei Qin, Aidong Wang, Jun Dong, Qiang Huang and Zhimin Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:7

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are believed to play an important role in growth, progression, and metastasis ...

    Authors: Jurgita Jackute, Marius Zemaitis, Darius Pranys, Brigita Sitkauskiene, Skaidrius Miliauskas, Simona Vaitkiene and Raimundas Sakalauskas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:3

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to contr...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, Vânia Maphossa, Ivalda Macicame, Nilesh Bhatt, Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, Ilesh Jani and Luc Kestens

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:50

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an imm...

    Authors: Shireen Nigar, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Takuma Okajima, Suguru Shigemori, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita and Takeshi Shimosato

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:44

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling ...

    Authors: Joseph A. Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M. Stemmer and Allen Rosenspire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:37

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are p...

    Authors: Cristina Vazquez-Mateo, Justin Collins, Michelle Fleury and Hans Dooms

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:18

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Comprehensive understanding of cellular immune subsets involved in regulation of tumor progression is central to the development of cancer immunotherapies. Single cell immunophenotyping has historically been a...

    Authors: Elma Kadić, Raymond J. Moniz, Ying Huo, An Chi and Ilona Kariv

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:6

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised althoug...

    Authors: Ying-Ying Hey, Benjamin Quah and Helen C. O’Neill

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:4

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  28. Content type: Research article

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress tumor immunity by inhibiting immune cells. Manipulation of Treg cells represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisph...

    Authors: Hsien Liu, Shih-Han Wang, Shin-Cheh Chen, Ching-Ying Chen, Jo-Lin Lo and Tsun-Mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:45

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  29. Content type: Methodology article

    The Luminex bead-based multiplex assay is useful for quantifying immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Cross-comparisons of reagents for this technique from different suppliers have already been p...

    Authors: Mathieu Surenaud, Céline Manier, Laura Richert, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Yves Levy, Sophie Hue and Christine Lacabaratz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:44

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Although histone methyltransferases EZH2 has been proved to have significant regulatory effect on the immune rejection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, its role in solid-organ transplantation rem...

    Authors: Long Li, Yi Zhang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Jina Wang and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:41

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8+ T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltr...

    Authors: Andrew J. Highton, Adam Girardin, Georgia M. Bell, Sarah M. Hook and Roslyn A. Kemp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:39

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Although Hizentra is indicated for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, phase III trials have focused on patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In th...

    Authors: J. F. Viallard, P. Agape, V. Barlogis, G. Cozon, C. Faure, F. Fouyssac, C. Gaud, M. P. Gourin, M. Hamidou, C. Hoarau, F. Husseini, M. Ojeda-Uribe, M. Pavic, I. Pellier, A. Perlat, N. Schleinitz…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:34

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Recently, the immunostimulatory roles of chemotherapeutics have been increasingly revealed, although bone marrow suppression is still a common toxicity of chemotherapy. While the numbers and ratios of differen...

    Authors: Yanhong Wu, Zhenling Deng, Huiru Wang, Wenbo Ma, Chunxia Zhou and Shuren Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:29

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Capparis Spinosa L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in dry regions around the Mediterranean basin. Capparis Spinosa was shown to possess several properties such as antioxidant, antif...

    Authors: Mouna Moutia, Khadija El Azhary, Anass Elouaddari, Abdellah Al Jahid, Jamal Jamal Eddine, Fouad Seghrouchni, Norddine Habti and Abdallah Badou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:26

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins present antigenic peptides for immune surveillance and play critical roles in nervous system development and plasticity. Most MHCI are transmembrane pro...

    Authors: Karla K. Frietze, Adlai L. Pappy II, Jack W. Melson, Emily E. O’Driscoll, Carolyn M. Tyler, David H. Perlman and Lisa M. Boulanger

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:24

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered autologous T-cells is becoming a successful therapy for cancer. The avidity of the engineered T-cells is of crucial importance for therapy success. We have in the pa...

    Authors: Victoria Hillerdal, Vanessa F. Boura, Hanna Björkelund, Karl Andersson and Magnus Essand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:23

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Children are prone to get infections, especially in the respiratory system and the gut mainly because their immune system is immature. T cells significantly contribute to the prevention of infections, and diff...

    Authors: Erxia Shen, Mengjie Wang, Hairui Xie, Ruqiong Zou, Qiwen Lin, Lili lai, Fujun Li, Zhimei Liang, Yanran Xu and Maohua Zhou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:20

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Inappropriate activation of T lymphocytes plays an important role in perinatal complications. However, data on T lymphocyte activation markers of preterm infants is scarce. We investigated the association betw...

    Authors: Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, Tivadar Tulassay and Barna Vásárhelyi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:19

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Humanized mouse models are an increasingly popular preclinical model to study the human immune response in a biological system. There are a variety of protocols to generate these mice, each differing in the st...

    Authors: Crystal Dykstra, Amanda J. Lee, Evan J. Lusty, Mira M. Shenouda, Mahsa Shafai, Fatemeh Vahedi, Marianne V. Chew, Stephen Collins and Ali A. Ashkar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:18

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  40. Content type: Database

    Promiscuous T-cell epitopes that can be presented by multiple human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are prime targets for vaccine and immunotherapy development because they are effective in a high proportion of the ...

    Authors: Shufeng Wang, Ling Guo, Dong Liu, Wei Liu and Yuzhang Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:17

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Previous evidence suggested that the differentiation of Lin-CD45RA-DC precursors were prior to plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) within ovarian cancer microenvironment. How...

    Authors: Xue-qian Qian, Li-li Chen, Qi Cheng, Yang Tian, Xiao-feng Luo and Xiao-yun Wan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:14

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in t...

    Authors: Ruth Forman, Michael Bramhall, Larisa Logunova, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M. Cruickshank and Kathryn J. Else

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:12

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  43. Content type: Methodology article

    Immunologists often measure several correlated immunological markers, such as concentrations of different cytokines produced by different immune cells and/or measured under different conditions, to draw insigh...

    Authors: Bernd Genser, Joachim E. Fischer, Camila A. Figueiredo, Neuza Alcântara-Neves, Mauricio L. Barreto, Philip J. Cooper, Leila D. Amorim, Marcus D. Saemann, Thomas Weichhart and Laura C. Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:11

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