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Immunity to infection

Section edited by Olivier Garraud and James Li

This section aims to publish studies on the immune response to infection from all microbes and toxins. The section also welcomes vaccine-related research if this is related to a specific organism.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected individuals substantially affects patients’ prognosis. However, the dynamic characteristics and pre...

    Authors: Chong-Xi Li, Yu-Ye Li, Li-Ping He, Jing Kou, Jin-Song Bai, Jun Liu, Bo Tian, Li-Juan Cao, Kun-Hua Wang and Yi-Qun Kuang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:31

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  2. Content type: Research article

    We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or Ig...

    Authors: Antony R. Parker, Markus Skold, Stephen Harding, J. Clayborn Barton, Luigi F. Bertoli and James C. Barton

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:29

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Immune inhibitory receptors play an important role in chronic infections. However, little is known about their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Here, we analyzed the relationship between programmed d...

    Authors: Yuejiao Dong, Xuefen Li, Lu Zhang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Chunlei Chen, Jiaqi Bao and Yu Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:27

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency may increase risk of respiratory tract infection in adults unselected for IgG or IgG subclass levels. In a retrospective study, we sought to determine associations of se...

    Authors: James C. Barton, Jackson C. Barton and Luigi F. Bertoli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:15

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  5. Content type: Research article

    High Immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to Plasmodium falciparum antigens is associated with partial malaria protection in sickle hemoglobin (HbS) children. However, this response has been more studied in children w...

    Authors: George Msema Bwire, Mtebe Majigo, Robert Makalla, Lillian Nkinda, Akili Mawazo, Mucho Mizinduko and Julie Makani

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:12

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the innate immune response by activating the complement system via the lectin pathway, and it has been studied in several viral infections; however, the ...

    Authors: Viviane Martha Santos de Morais, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Georgea Gertrudes de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza and Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:1

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus reproduces by generation of conidia, which are spread by airflow throughout nature. Since humans are inhaling certain amounts of spores every day, the (innate) immune ...

    Authors: Lothar Marischen, Anne Englert, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Hermann Einsele and Juergen Loeffler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:39

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) plays a significant role in the clinical management of HIV infected people by preventing morbidity and mortality. This benefit becomes, the most t...

    Authors: Gizachew Ayele, Belay Tessema, Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede and Gizachew Yismaw

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:37

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Antibodies against Region III-V of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) 175 (EBA175RIII-V) have been suggested to provide protection from malaria in a natural infection. However, the quality and quantity of n...

    Authors: L. E. Amoah, H. B. Abagna, K. Akyea-Mensah, A. C. Lo, K. A. Kusi and B. A. Gyan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:34

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in ...

    Authors: Karima Sahmoudi, Hassan Abbassi, Nada Bouklata, Mohamed Nouredine El Alami, Abderrahmane Sadak, Christopher Burant, W. Henry Boom, Rajae El Aouad, David H. Canaday and Fouad Seghrouchni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:33

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  11. Content type: Research article

    IL-17A has emerged as a key player in the pathologies of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immunity to microbes since its discovery two decades ago. In this study, we aim to elucidate the activity of IL-17...

    Authors: Elaheh Movahed, Yi Ying Cheok, Grace Min Yi Tan, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Heng Choon Cheong, Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Sun Tee Tay, Pei Pei Chong, Won Fen Wong and Chung Yeng Looi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:32

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common syndromic immunodeficiency with an increased risk of infection, mortality from sepsis, and autoinflammation. Innate immune function is altered in DS and therefore we exami...

    Authors: Dean Huggard, Fiona McGrane, Niamh Lagan, Edna Roche, Joanne Balfe, Timothy Ronan Leahy, Orla Franklin, Ana Moreno, Ashanty M. Melo, Derek G. Doherty and Eleanor J. Molloy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:31

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The involvement of inflammasome activation and macrophage polarization during the process of syphilis infection remains unknown. In this study, A series of experiments were performed using human macrophages to...

    Authors: Li-Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Yu-Yan Chen, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Yao Xiao, Wen-Dong Li, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Li-Li Liu, Zan-Xi Fang, Jian-Jun Niu, Yong Lin…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:28

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 9 (KCTD9), a member of KCTD family with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain, was found to be increased particularly in NK cells of patients with HBV-induce...

    Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Lin Zhu, Yaoyong Zhou, Aichao Shi, Hongwu Wang, Meifang Han, Xiaoyang Wan, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Xiaoping Luo, Tao Chen and Qin Ning

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:20

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4+ T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) presentation of Mtb antigens (Ags). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most p...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Aihong Xia, Xin Li, Zhaocheng Zhu, Yechi Shen, Shanshan Jin, Tian Lan, Yuqing Xie, Han Wu, Chuang Meng, Lin Sun, Yuelan Yin, Xiang Chen and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:19

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current...

    Authors: Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang and Wentao Yue

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:10

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  17. Content type: Research article

    We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the ...

    Authors: Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N. McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C. Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O. Eko, Carolyn M. Black, Joseph U. Igietseme and Qing He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:27

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogeni...

    Authors: Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang and Ivan-Chen Cheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:25

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Pri...

    Authors: Bernhard Banas, Carsten A. Böger, Gerhard Lückhoff, Bernd Krüger, Sascha Barabas, Julia Batzilla, Mathias Schemmerer, Josef Köstler, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Ralf Wagner, Ludwig Deml, Joachim Leicht and Bernhard K. Krämer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:15

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  20. Content type: Methodology article

    In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to...

    Authors: Sascha Barabas, Theresa Spindler, Richard Kiener, Charlotte Tonar, Tamara Lugner, Julia Batzilla, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner and Ludwig Deml

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:14

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) w...

    Authors: Shyamashree Banerjee, Parth Sarthi Sen Gupta and Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:13

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute liver injury and the complex mechanisms include the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in many species. However, immuno-pathological changes duri...

    Authors: Xi-Yao Huang, Abdur Rahman Ansari, Hai-Bo Huang, Xing Zhao, Ning-Ya Li, Zhi-Jian Sun, Ke-Mei Peng, Juming Zhong and Hua-Zhen Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:12

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicit...

    Authors: Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Xiaomei Wang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang and Xueqiong Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:11

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Patients experiencing large thermal injuries are susceptible to opportunistic infections that can delay recovery and lead to sepsis. Dendritic cells (DC) are important for the detection of pathogens and activa...

    Authors: Leon Bae, Julia K. Bohannon, Weihua Cui, Monika Vinish and Tracy Toliver-Kinsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:9

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Hyperactive secretion and pathogenic effects of interleukin (IL)-17 and IgA have been detected in different arthropathies. Recent evidence has revealed that TH17 cytokines regulate mucosal IgA secretion. However,...

    Authors: Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, Juan Eduardo Silva, Mabel Noemí Dave, María Gabriela Lacoste, Héctor Tamashiro, Rodrigo Blas, Alicia Munarriz, Gabriel Adrián Rabinovich and María Silvia Di Genaro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:8

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  26. Content type: Research article

    While tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi) and other biologics are very effective against autoimmune diseases, they can also cause infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to clarify wh...

    Authors: Shoichi Fukui, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshiko Takahashi, Naoki Iwamoto, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Akihiko Okayama and Atsushi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:7

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform...

    Authors: Kurt Hanevik, Einar Kristoffersen, Kristine Mørch, Kristin Paulsen Rye, Steinar Sørnes, Staffan Svärd, Øystein Bruserud and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:5

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin c...

    Authors: Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:37

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to characterize specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses in men who have sex with men (MSM) subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CRF01_AE subtyp...

    Authors: Fanming Jiang, Xiaoxu Han, Hui Zhang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Tao Dong and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:28

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The lung is exposed to airborne fungal spores, and fungi that colonize the oral cavity such as Candida albicans, but does not develop disease to opportunistic fungal pathogens unless the immune system is compromi...

    Authors: Sabarirajan Jayaraja, Azzeddine Dakhama, Bogeon Yun, Moumita Ghosh, HeeJung Lee, Elizabeth F. Redente, Charis L. Uhlson, Robert C. Murphy and Christina C. Leslie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:27

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Serglycin proteoglycans are essential for maturation of secretory granules and for the correct granular storage of cationic proteases in hematopoietic cells, e.g. mast cells. However, little is known about the...

    Authors: Ananya Roy, Osama Sawesi, Ulrika Pettersson, Anders Dagälv, Lena Kjellén, Anna Lundén and Magnus Åbrink

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:15

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major causative bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, possesses a thick polysaccharide capsule. Host defense against this bacterium is mediate...

    Authors: Yukiko Akahori, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Masahiko Toyama, Ikumi Matsumoto, Anna Miyahara, Tong Zong, Keiko Ishii, Yuki Kinjo, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shinobu Saijo, Yoichiro Iwakura and Kazuyoshi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:1

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with the massive infiltration of neutrophils. Although the initial infiltration of neutrophils is beneficial for killing bacteria, it is presume...

    Authors: Sumika Tokieda, Marie Komori, Toshifumi Ishiguro, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kazuhiko Takahara and Kayo Inaba

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:64

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Comparative analysis of genome-wide expression profiles are increasingly being used to study virus-specific host interactions. In order to gain mechanistic insights, gene expression profiles can be combined wi...

    Authors: Juilee Thakar, Boris M. Hartmann, Nada Marjanovic, Stuart C. Sealfon and Steven H. Kleinstein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:46

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Systemic immune activation (inflammation) and immunosenescence develop in some people with advancing age. This process, known as “inflamm-aging,” is associated with physical frailty and sarcopenia. Meanwhile, ...

    Authors: Mark A. Wallet, Thomas W. Buford, Anna-Maria Joseph, Madhuri Sankuratri, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Todd Manini, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:43

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  36. Content type: Research article

    TLR8 assists in antiviral approach by producing Type 1 INF via MyD88 dependent IRF7 pathway. However, over expression of INFα/β molecule poses threat by developing tolerance in chronic infection cases and enhanci...

    Authors: Anurag Adhikari, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Krishna Das Manandhar, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Hari Krishna Saiju, Rajendra Maan Shrestha, Nawneet Mishra and Shishir Sharma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:42

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  37. Content type: Research article

    We previously showed that the Vibrio cholerae ghost platform (VCG; empty V. cholerae cell envelopes) is an effective delivery system for vaccine antigens promoting the induction of substantial immunity in the abs...

    Authors: Francis O Eko, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik, Roshan Pais, Qing Pan, Daniel M N Okenu, Arieian Johnson, Chris Ibegbu, Cheng He, Qing He, Raedeen Russell, Carolyn M Black and Joseph U Igietseme

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:584

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  38. Content type: Research article

    TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), a receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, is upregulated in sepsis and seems to tune the inflammatory response. We explored the expression of T...

    Authors: Androniki Marioli, Marina Koupetori, Maria Raftogiannis, Maria Patrani, Nikolaos Antonakos, Maria Pavlaki, Georgios Adamis, Georgia Dougekou, Georgia Damoraki and Iraklis Tsangaris

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:585

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  39. Content type: Methodology article

    Highly purified nuclear protein is required when using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to study transcription factors, e.g. nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a major transcription factor that regulates bo...

    Authors: Yuqian Luo, Takeshi Hara, Yuko Ishido, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Masahiko Makino, Norihisa Ishii, Naoki Hiroi and Koichi Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:586

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Intracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the int...

    Authors: Tanja Buchacher, Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr, Klemens Vierlinger, Beate M Rüger, Gerold Stanek, Michael B Fischer and Viktoria Weber

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:60

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aureus) has been used as a model to study infections caused by a number of human pathogens. Studies of immunopathogenesis in hamster infection models are challenging becaus...

    Authors: Claudia M Espitia, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, E Yaneth Osorio, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark Band, Mandakini J Patel, Audrie A Medina, Michael Cappello, Andrew Pekosz and Peter C Melby

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:38

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Muc...

    Authors: Mathieu Goupil, Vincent Cousineau-Côté, Francine Aumont, Serge Sénéchal, Louis Gaboury, Zaher Hanna, Paul Jolicoeur and Louis de Repentigny

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:49

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the hos...

    Authors: Robert F Foronjy, Abdoulaye J Dabo, Neville Cummins and Patrick Geraghty

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:41

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  44. Content type: Research article

    B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the presen...

    Authors: Adriana Bornacelly, Dilia Mercado, Nathalie Acevedo and Luis Caraballo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:22

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The immune system plays a critical role in the development of co-infections, promoting or preventing establishment of multiple infections and shaping the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. Its ability to m...

    Authors: Erika van den Bogaart, Al-Badawi A Talha, Masja Straetemans, Pètra F Mens, Emily R Adams, Martin P Grobusch, Bakri Y M Nour and Henk D F H Schallig

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:16

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus sanguinis (S.sanguinis), a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity, has been widely associated with the development of infective endocarditis. Platelets play both a haemostatic function and c...

    Authors: Fabrice Cognasse, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Adrien Chabert, Elke Jackson, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Olivier Garraud and Archie McNicol

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:15

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