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Immunity to infection

Section edited by Olivier Garraud and James Li

This section aims to publish studies on the immune response to infection from all microbes and toxins. The section also welcomes vaccine-related research if this is related to a specific organism.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 9 (KCTD9), a member of KCTD family with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain, was found to be increased particularly in NK cells of patients with HBV-induce...

    Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Lin Zhu, Yaoyong Zhou, Aichao Shi, Hongwu Wang, Meifang Han, Xiaoyang Wan, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Xiaoping Luo, Tao Chen and Qin Ning

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:20

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4+ T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) presentation of Mtb antigens (Ags). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most p...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Aihong Xia, Xin Li, Zhaocheng Zhu, Yechi Shen, Shanshan Jin, Tian Lan, Yuqing Xie, Han Wu, Chuang Meng, Lin Sun, Yuelan Yin, Xiang Chen and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:19

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current...

    Authors: Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang and Wentao Yue

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:10

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  4. Content type: Research article

    We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the ...

    Authors: Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N. McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C. Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O. Eko, Carolyn M. Black, Joseph U. Igietseme and Qing He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:27

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogeni...

    Authors: Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang and Ivan-Chen Cheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:25

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to...

    Authors: Sascha Barabas, Theresa Spindler, Richard Kiener, Charlotte Tonar, Tamara Lugner, Julia Batzilla, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner and Ludwig Deml

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:14

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Pri...

    Authors: Bernhard Banas, Carsten A. Böger, Gerhard Lückhoff, Bernd Krüger, Sascha Barabas, Julia Batzilla, Mathias Schemmerer, Josef Köstler, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Ralf Wagner, Ludwig Deml, Joachim Leicht and Bernhard K. Krämer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:15

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) w...

    Authors: Shyamashree Banerjee, Parth Sarthi Sen Gupta and Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:13

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute liver injury and the complex mechanisms include the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in many species. However, immuno-pathological changes duri...

    Authors: Xi-Yao Huang, Abdur Rahman Ansari, Hai-Bo Huang, Xing Zhao, Ning-Ya Li, Zhi-Jian Sun, Ke-Mei Peng, Juming Zhong and Hua-Zhen Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:12

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicit...

    Authors: Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Xiaomei Wang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang and Xueqiong Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:11

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Patients experiencing large thermal injuries are susceptible to opportunistic infections that can delay recovery and lead to sepsis. Dendritic cells (DC) are important for the detection of pathogens and activa...

    Authors: Leon Bae, Julia K. Bohannon, Weihua Cui, Monika Vinish and Tracy Toliver-Kinsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:9

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Hyperactive secretion and pathogenic effects of interleukin (IL)-17 and IgA have been detected in different arthropathies. Recent evidence has revealed that TH17 cytokines regulate mucosal IgA secretion. However,...

    Authors: Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, Juan Eduardo Silva, Mabel Noemí Dave, María Gabriela Lacoste, Héctor Tamashiro, Rodrigo Blas, Alicia Munarriz, Gabriel Adrián Rabinovich and María Silvia Di Genaro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:8

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  13. Content type: Research article

    While tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi) and other biologics are very effective against autoimmune diseases, they can also cause infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to clarify wh...

    Authors: Shoichi Fukui, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshiko Takahashi, Naoki Iwamoto, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Akihiko Okayama and Atsushi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:7

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform...

    Authors: Kurt Hanevik, Einar Kristoffersen, Kristine Mørch, Kristin Paulsen Rye, Steinar Sørnes, Staffan Svärd, Øystein Bruserud and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:5

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin c...

    Authors: Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:37

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to characterize specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses in men who have sex with men (MSM) subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CRF01_AE subtyp...

    Authors: Fanming Jiang, Xiaoxu Han, Hui Zhang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Tao Dong and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:28

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The lung is exposed to airborne fungal spores, and fungi that colonize the oral cavity such as Candida albicans, but does not develop disease to opportunistic fungal pathogens unless the immune system is compromi...

    Authors: Sabarirajan Jayaraja, Azzeddine Dakhama, Bogeon Yun, Moumita Ghosh, HeeJung Lee, Elizabeth F. Redente, Charis L. Uhlson, Robert C. Murphy and Christina C. Leslie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:27

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Serglycin proteoglycans are essential for maturation of secretory granules and for the correct granular storage of cationic proteases in hematopoietic cells, e.g. mast cells. However, little is known about the...

    Authors: Ananya Roy, Osama Sawesi, Ulrika Pettersson, Anders Dagälv, Lena Kjellén, Anna Lundén and Magnus Åbrink

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:15

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major causative bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, possesses a thick polysaccharide capsule. Host defense against this bacterium is mediate...

    Authors: Yukiko Akahori, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Masahiko Toyama, Ikumi Matsumoto, Anna Miyahara, Tong Zong, Keiko Ishii, Yuki Kinjo, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shinobu Saijo, Yoichiro Iwakura and Kazuyoshi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:1

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with the massive infiltration of neutrophils. Although the initial infiltration of neutrophils is beneficial for killing bacteria, it is presume...

    Authors: Sumika Tokieda, Marie Komori, Toshifumi Ishiguro, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kazuhiko Takahara and Kayo Inaba

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:64

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Comparative analysis of genome-wide expression profiles are increasingly being used to study virus-specific host interactions. In order to gain mechanistic insights, gene expression profiles can be combined wi...

    Authors: Juilee Thakar, Boris M. Hartmann, Nada Marjanovic, Stuart C. Sealfon and Steven H. Kleinstein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:46

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Systemic immune activation (inflammation) and immunosenescence develop in some people with advancing age. This process, known as “inflamm-aging,” is associated with physical frailty and sarcopenia. Meanwhile, ...

    Authors: Mark A. Wallet, Thomas W. Buford, Anna-Maria Joseph, Madhuri Sankuratri, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Todd Manini, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:43

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  23. Content type: Research article

    TLR8 assists in antiviral approach by producing Type 1 INF via MyD88 dependent IRF7 pathway. However, over expression of INFα/β molecule poses threat by developing tolerance in chronic infection cases and enhanci...

    Authors: Anurag Adhikari, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Krishna Das Manandhar, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Hari Krishna Saiju, Rajendra Maan Shrestha, Nawneet Mishra and Shishir Sharma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:42

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  24. Content type: Research article

    We previously showed that the Vibrio cholerae ghost platform (VCG; empty V. cholerae cell envelopes) is an effective delivery system for vaccine antigens promoting the induction of substantial immunity in the abs...

    Authors: Francis O Eko, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik, Roshan Pais, Qing Pan, Daniel M N Okenu, Arieian Johnson, Chris Ibegbu, Cheng He, Qing He, Raedeen Russell, Carolyn M Black and Joseph U Igietseme

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:584

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  25. Content type: Research article

    TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), a receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, is upregulated in sepsis and seems to tune the inflammatory response. We explored the expression of T...

    Authors: Androniki Marioli, Marina Koupetori, Maria Raftogiannis, Maria Patrani, Nikolaos Antonakos, Maria Pavlaki, Georgios Adamis, Georgia Dougekou, Georgia Damoraki and Iraklis Tsangaris

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:585

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  26. Content type: Methodology article

    Highly purified nuclear protein is required when using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to study transcription factors, e.g. nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a major transcription factor that regulates bo...

    Authors: Yuqian Luo, Takeshi Hara, Yuko Ishido, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Masahiko Makino, Norihisa Ishii, Naoki Hiroi and Koichi Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:586

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Intracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the int...

    Authors: Tanja Buchacher, Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr, Klemens Vierlinger, Beate M Rüger, Gerold Stanek, Michael B Fischer and Viktoria Weber

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:60

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aureus) has been used as a model to study infections caused by a number of human pathogens. Studies of immunopathogenesis in hamster infection models are challenging becaus...

    Authors: Claudia M Espitia, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, E Yaneth Osorio, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark Band, Mandakini J Patel, Audrie A Medina, Michael Cappello, Andrew Pekosz and Peter C Melby

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:38

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Muc...

    Authors: Mathieu Goupil, Vincent Cousineau-Côté, Francine Aumont, Serge Sénéchal, Louis Gaboury, Zaher Hanna, Paul Jolicoeur and Louis de Repentigny

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:49

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the hos...

    Authors: Robert F Foronjy, Abdoulaye J Dabo, Neville Cummins and Patrick Geraghty

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:41

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  31. Content type: Research article

    B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the presen...

    Authors: Adriana Bornacelly, Dilia Mercado, Nathalie Acevedo and Luis Caraballo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:22

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The immune system plays a critical role in the development of co-infections, promoting or preventing establishment of multiple infections and shaping the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. Its ability to m...

    Authors: Erika van den Bogaart, Al-Badawi A Talha, Masja Straetemans, Pètra F Mens, Emily R Adams, Martin P Grobusch, Bakri Y M Nour and Henk D F H Schallig

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:16

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus sanguinis (S.sanguinis), a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity, has been widely associated with the development of infective endocarditis. Platelets play both a haemostatic function and c...

    Authors: Fabrice Cognasse, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Adrien Chabert, Elke Jackson, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Olivier Garraud and Archie McNicol

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:15

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by an overwhelming host-mediated response to bacterial superantigens produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. TSS is characterized by aberrant acti...

    Authors: Hani Kim, Ilyse Darwish, Maria-Fernanda Monroy, Darwin J Prockop, W Conrad Liles and Kevin C Kain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:1

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting h...

    Authors: Jinhee Lee, Michael A Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D Shultz and Hardy Kornfeld

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:53

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The interaction between the Leishmania parasite and the host cell involves complex, multifaceted processes. The disease severity in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is largely dependent on the causative species. Most...

    Authors: Gajendra Kumar Katara, Anand Raj, Rajesh Kumar, Kumar Avishek, Himanshu Kaushal, Nasim Akhtar Ansari, Ram Awatar Bumb and Poonam Salotra

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:52

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary ...

    Authors: Kelly Cunningham, Scott H Stansfield, Pooja Patel, Shruti Menon, Vivian Kienzle, John A Allan and Wilhelmina M Huston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:50

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are still a major cause of death among all infectious diseases. Although 99% of individuals infected with Mtb develop a CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ T cell mediated immunity as me...

    Authors: Marion Heuer, Anna-Sophie Behlich, Ji-Sook Lee, Eliana Ribechini, Eun-Kyeong Jo and Manfred B Lutz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:48

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respi...

    Authors: Yohsuke Tomosada, Eriko Chiba, Hortensia Zelaya, Takuya Takahashi, Kohichiro Tsukida, Haruki Kitazawa, Susana Alvarez and Julio Villena

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:40

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  40. Content type: Research article

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific, acute-phase protein that rises in response to infectious and non-infectious inflammatory processes. Infections are the single largest cause of neonatal deaths globally.

    Authors: Amre Nasr, Gamal Allam, Ali Al-Zahrani and Adnan Alsulaimani

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:38

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Surgical intervention-related trauma contributes largely to the development of postoperative immunosuppression, with reduced resistance to secondary bacterial infection. This study compared the impact of lapar...

    Authors: Shun Gen Huang, Yi Ping Li, Qi Zhang, H Paul Redmond, Jiang Huai Wang and Jian Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:27

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Infection with parasite protozoa is a long-term health issue in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the first-responding defense syst...

    Authors: Maria M Figueiredo, Izabela FG Amorim, Aldair JW Pinto, Vítor S Barbosa, Lucélia de Jesus Pinheiro, Beatriz Deoti, Ana MC Faria and Wagner L Tafuri

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:22

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  43. Content type: Methodology article

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the cause of the great majority of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases in North America. SNV, like all ...

    Authors: Tony Schountz, Timothy I Shaw, Travis C Glenn, Heinz Feldmann and Joseph Prescott

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:18

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately diff...

    Authors: Axel Nierhaus, Stefanie Klatte, Jo Linssen, Nina M Eismann, Dominic Wichmann, Jörg Hedke, Stephan A Braune and Stefan Kluge

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:8

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  45. Content type: Research article

    It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection induces the production of endogenous lipids required for effective viral production, and the cluster of differentiation (CD)1 molecule CD1d...

    Authors: Halonna Kelly, Rajakumar Mandraju, Jordana GA Coelho-dos-Reis and Moriya Tsuji

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:4

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The local tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the induction, homing, maintenance and development of effector functions of T cells. Thus, site-specific differences in phenotypes of mucosal and sy...

    Authors: Joyce A Ibana, Leann Myers, Constance Porretta, Maria Lewis, Stephanie N Taylor, David H Martin and Alison J Quayle

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:66

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Protective responses in mice immunized with an interferon-gamma producing strain of Cryptococcus neoformans, H99γ, are associated with IL-17A production by neutrophils. Neutrophil depletion in H99γ-immunized mice...

    Authors: Karen L Wozniak, Jay K Kolls and Floyd L Wormley Jr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:65

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