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Immunity to infection

Section edited by Olivier Garraud and James Li

This section aims to publish studies on the immune response to infection from all microbes and toxins. The section also welcomes vaccine-related research if this is related to a specific organism.

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  1. Comparative analysis of genome-wide expression profiles are increasingly being used to study virus-specific host interactions. In order to gain mechanistic insights, gene expression profiles can be combined wi...

    Authors: Juilee Thakar, Boris M. Hartmann, Nada Marjanovic, Stuart C. Sealfon and Steven H. Kleinstein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:46

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Systemic immune activation (inflammation) and immunosenescence develop in some people with advancing age. This process, known as “inflamm-aging,” is associated with physical frailty and sarcopenia. Meanwhile, ...

    Authors: Mark A. Wallet, Thomas W. Buford, Anna-Maria Joseph, Madhuri Sankuratri, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Todd Manini, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:43

    Content type: Research article

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  3. TLR8 assists in antiviral approach by producing Type 1 INF via MyD88 dependent IRF7 pathway. However, over expression of INFα/β molecule poses threat by developing tolerance in chronic infection cases and enhanci...

    Authors: Anurag Adhikari, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Krishna Das Manandhar, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Hari Krishna Saiju, Rajendra Maan Shrestha, Nawneet Mishra and Shishir Sharma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:42

    Content type: Research article

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  4. We previously showed that the Vibrio cholerae ghost platform (VCG; empty V. cholerae cell envelopes) is an effective delivery system for vaccine antigens promoting the induction of substantial immunity in the abs...

    Authors: Francis O Eko, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik, Roshan Pais, Qing Pan, Daniel M N Okenu, Arieian Johnson, Chris Ibegbu, Cheng He, Qing He, Raedeen Russell, Carolyn M Black and Joseph U Igietseme

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:584

    Content type: Research article

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  5. TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), a receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, is upregulated in sepsis and seems to tune the inflammatory response. We explored the expression of T...

    Authors: Androniki Marioli, Marina Koupetori, Maria Raftogiannis, Maria Patrani, Nikolaos Antonakos, Maria Pavlaki, Georgios Adamis, Georgia Dougekou, Georgia Damoraki and Iraklis Tsangaris

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:585

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Highly purified nuclear protein is required when using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to study transcription factors, e.g. nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a major transcription factor that regulates bo...

    Authors: Yuqian Luo, Takeshi Hara, Yuko Ishido, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Masahiko Makino, Norihisa Ishii, Naoki Hiroi and Koichi Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:586

    Content type: Methodology article

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  7. Intracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the int...

    Authors: Tanja Buchacher, Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr, Klemens Vierlinger, Beate M Rüger, Gerold Stanek, Michael B Fischer and Viktoria Weber

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:60

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aureus) has been used as a model to study infections caused by a number of human pathogens. Studies of immunopathogenesis in hamster infection models are challenging becaus...

    Authors: Claudia M Espitia, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, E Yaneth Osorio, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark Band, Mandakini J Patel, Audrie A Medina, Michael Cappello, Andrew Pekosz and Peter C Melby

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:38

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Muc...

    Authors: Mathieu Goupil, Vincent Cousineau-Côté, Francine Aumont, Serge Sénéchal, Louis Gaboury, Zaher Hanna, Paul Jolicoeur and Louis de Repentigny

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:49

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the hos...

    Authors: Robert F Foronjy, Abdoulaye J Dabo, Neville Cummins and Patrick Geraghty

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:41

    Content type: Research article

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  11. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the presen...

    Authors: Adriana Bornacelly, Dilia Mercado, Nathalie Acevedo and Luis Caraballo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:22

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The immune system plays a critical role in the development of co-infections, promoting or preventing establishment of multiple infections and shaping the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. Its ability to m...

    Authors: Erika van den Bogaart, Al-Badawi A Talha, Masja Straetemans, Pètra F Mens, Emily R Adams, Martin P Grobusch, Bakri Y M Nour and Henk D F H Schallig

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:16

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Streptococcus sanguinis (S.sanguinis), a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity, has been widely associated with the development of infective endocarditis. Platelets play both a haemostatic function and c...

    Authors: Fabrice Cognasse, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Adrien Chabert, Elke Jackson, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Olivier Garraud and Archie McNicol

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:15

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by an overwhelming host-mediated response to bacterial superantigens produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. TSS is characterized by aberrant acti...

    Authors: Hani Kim, Ilyse Darwish, Maria-Fernanda Monroy, Darwin J Prockop, W Conrad Liles and Kevin C Kain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:1

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting h...

    Authors: Jinhee Lee, Michael A Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D Shultz and Hardy Kornfeld

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:53

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The interaction between the Leishmania parasite and the host cell involves complex, multifaceted processes. The disease severity in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is largely dependent on the causative species. Most...

    Authors: Gajendra Kumar Katara, Anand Raj, Rajesh Kumar, Kumar Avishek, Himanshu Kaushal, Nasim Akhtar Ansari, Ram Awatar Bumb and Poonam Salotra

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:52

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary ...

    Authors: Kelly Cunningham, Scott H Stansfield, Pooja Patel, Shruti Menon, Vivian Kienzle, John A Allan and Wilhelmina M Huston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:50

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are still a major cause of death among all infectious diseases. Although 99% of individuals infected with Mtb develop a CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ T cell mediated immunity as me...

    Authors: Marion Heuer, Anna-Sophie Behlich, Ji-Sook Lee, Eliana Ribechini, Eun-Kyeong Jo and Manfred B Lutz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:48

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respi...

    Authors: Yohsuke Tomosada, Eriko Chiba, Hortensia Zelaya, Takuya Takahashi, Kohichiro Tsukida, Haruki Kitazawa, Susana Alvarez and Julio Villena

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:40

    Content type: Research article

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  20. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific, acute-phase protein that rises in response to infectious and non-infectious inflammatory processes. Infections are the single largest cause of neonatal deaths globally.

    Authors: Amre Nasr, Gamal Allam, Ali Al-Zahrani and Adnan Alsulaimani

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:38

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Surgical intervention-related trauma contributes largely to the development of postoperative immunosuppression, with reduced resistance to secondary bacterial infection. This study compared the impact of lapar...

    Authors: Shun Gen Huang, Yi Ping Li, Qi Zhang, H Paul Redmond, Jiang Huai Wang and Jian Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:27

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Infection with parasite protozoa is a long-term health issue in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the first-responding defense syst...

    Authors: Maria M Figueiredo, Izabela FG Amorim, Aldair JW Pinto, Vítor S Barbosa, Lucélia de Jesus Pinheiro, Beatriz Deoti, Ana MC Faria and Wagner L Tafuri

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:22

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the cause of the great majority of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases in North America. SNV, like all ...

    Authors: Tony Schountz, Timothy I Shaw, Travis C Glenn, Heinz Feldmann and Joseph Prescott

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:18

    Content type: Methodology article

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  24. Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately diff...

    Authors: Axel Nierhaus, Stefanie Klatte, Jo Linssen, Nina M Eismann, Dominic Wichmann, Jörg Hedke, Stephan A Braune and Stefan Kluge

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:8

    Content type: Research article

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  25. It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection induces the production of endogenous lipids required for effective viral production, and the cluster of differentiation (CD)1 molecule CD1d...

    Authors: Halonna Kelly, Rajakumar Mandraju, Jordana GA Coelho-dos-Reis and Moriya Tsuji

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:4

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The local tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the induction, homing, maintenance and development of effector functions of T cells. Thus, site-specific differences in phenotypes of mucosal and sy...

    Authors: Joyce A Ibana, Leann Myers, Constance Porretta, Maria Lewis, Stephanie N Taylor, David H Martin and Alison J Quayle

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:66

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Protective responses in mice immunized with an interferon-gamma producing strain of Cryptococcus neoformans, H99γ, are associated with IL-17A production by neutrophils. Neutrophil depletion in H99γ-immunized mice...

    Authors: Karen L Wozniak, Jay K Kolls and Floyd L Wormley Jr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:65

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The immunological roles of B-cells are being revealed as increasingly complex by functions that are largely beyond their commitment to differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies, the key molecular ...

    Authors: Olivier Garraud, Gwenoline Borhis, Gamal Badr, Séverine Degrelle, Bruno Pozzetto, Fabrice Cognasse and Yolande Richard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:63

    Content type: Review

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  29. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an ancient group of defense molecules. AMPs are widely distributed in nature (being present in mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, plants, and microorganisms). They display b...

    Authors: Rosanna Capparelli, Francesco De Chiara, Nunzia Nocerino, Rosa Chiara Montella, Marco Iannaccone, Andrea Fulgione, Alessandra Romanelli, Concetta Avitabile, Giuseppe Blaiotta and Federico Capuano

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:61

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert) as therapeutic agent requires further investigation.

    Authors: Thiago Malardo, Marcelo E Batalhão, Ademilson Panunto-Castelo, Luciana P Almeida, Everton Padilha, Isabela C Fontoura, Célio L Silva, Evelin C Carnio and Arlete AM Coelho-Castelo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:59

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity....

    Authors: Song-yue Zheng, Bin Yu, Ke Zhang, Min Chen, Yan-Hong Hua, Shuofeng Yuan, Rory M Watt, Bo-Jian Zheng, Kwok-Yung Yuen and Jian-Dong Huang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:54

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Some studies have shown that probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, had the potential to beneficially modulate the outcome of certain bacterial and viral respiratory infections. However, these stu...

    Authors: Julio Villena, Eriko Chiba, Yohsuke Tomosada, Susana Salva, Gabriela Marranzino, Haruki Kitazawa and Susana Alvarez

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:53

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia. Host defense to S.aureus infection is largely mediated by the innate immune system. γδ T cells play an important rol...

    Authors: Ping Cheng, Tao Liu, Wei-Ying Zhou, Yuan Zhuang, Liu-sheng Peng, Jin-yu Zhang, Zhi-Nan Yin, Xu-hu Mao, Gang Guo, Yun Shi and Quan-ming Zou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:38

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) leading to acute kidney failure, is a condition linked to the production of primarily Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) by some E. coli serotypes. We have previously shown that Stx2 A subunit-s...

    Authors: Abhineet Sheoran, Kwang-il Jeong, Jean Mukherjee, Anthony Wiffin, Pradeep Singh and Saul Tzipori

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:27

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Ehrlichia chaffeens is is a bacterial pathogen that causes fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) that mimic toxic shock-like syndrome. Murine studies indicate that over activation of cellular immunity followed...

    Authors: Nahed Ismail, David H Walker, Purnima Ghose and Yi-Wei Tang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:26

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and host-proteins is one of the etiological enigmas for the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. T cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes may trigger autoimmune...

    Authors: Sathi Babu Chodisetti, Pradeep K Rai, Uthaman Gowthaman, Susanta Pahari and Javed N Agrewala

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:13

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cytokines and chemokines are key mediators of anti-malarial immunity. We evaluated whether Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) had an effect on the acquisition...

    Authors: Diana Quelhas, Laura Puyol, Llorenç Quintó, Tacilta Nhampossa, Elisa Serra-Casas, Eusébio Macete, Pedro Aide, Sergi Sanz, John J Aponte, Denise L Doolan, Pedro L Alonso, Clara Menéndez and Carlota Dobaño

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:5

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immun...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Isabella Eckerle, Volker Daniel, Ulrich Burkhardt, Gerhard Opelz and Paul Schnitzler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:65

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕ) play important roles in allergies and responses to parasitic infections. However, whether signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays any role in AAMϕ inductio...

    Authors: HongLin Luo, Weiyi Huang, Dongying Wang, Haoju Wang and Kui Nie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:63

    Content type: Research article

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    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2012 13:3

  40. The zebrafish embryo is an important in vivo model to study the host innate immune response towards microbial infection. In most zebrafish infectious disease models, infection is achieved by micro-injection of ba...

    Authors: Joost J van Soest, Oliver W Stockhammer, Anita Ordas, Guido V Bloemberg, Herman P Spaink and Annemarie H Meijer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:58

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of Q fever; both coxiella outer membrane protein 1 (Com1) and heat shock protein B (HspB) are its major immunodominant antigens. It...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Xiaolu Xiong, Deping Wu, Xile Wang and Bohai Wen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:52

    Content type: Research article

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  42. IL-17+ T helper cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are CD4+ T helper cells with reciprocally regulated differentiation and function. Their frequency and function vary in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In thi...

    Authors: Yinghua Niu, Hongli Liu, Donglin Yin, Ruitian Yi, Tianyan Chen, Hong'an Xue, Shulin Zhang, Shumei Lin and Yingren Zhao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:47

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Leishmania parasites have been reported to interfere and even subvert their host immune responses to enhance their chances of survival and proliferation. Experimental Leishmania infection in mice has been widely ...

    Authors: Bernardo AS Pereira, Franklin S Silva, Karina M Rebello, Marcel Marín-Villa, Yara M Traub-Cseko, Thereza CB Andrade, Álvaro L Bertho, Ernesto R Caffarena and Carlos R Alves

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:44

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a severe respiratory illness caused by a novel virus, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV plays a role in processing viral polypeptid...

    Authors: Hsien-Hua Liao, Yao-Chen Wang, Miles Chih-Ming Chen, Hsien-Yu Tsai, Johnson Lin, Shui-Tein Chen, Gregory Jiazer Tsay and Sun-Long Cheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:16

    Content type: Research article

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