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This section aims to publish studies looking at the genes involved in immunological responses and immune cell regulation. The section also welcomes submissions on the immunogenetics of cell interactions, immunogenetics of tissue differentiation and development, genetic control of immune response and disease susceptibility and genetics of responses to alloantigens.

  1. Content type: Research article

    The adaptive immune system maintains a diversity of T cells capable of recognizing a broad array of antigens. Each T cell’s specificity for antigens is determined by its T cell receptors (TCRs), which together...

    Authors: Nathaniel D. Chu, Haixin Sarah Bi, Ryan O. Emerson, Anna M. Sherwood, Michael E. Birnbaum, Harlan S. Robins and Eric J. Alm

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:19

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The natural killer cell line, NK-92MI, is cytotoxic against various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) NK-92MI cells targeting carcinoembryonic antig...

    Authors: Masayuki Shiozawa, Chuan-Hsin Chang, Yi-Chun Huang, Yi-Ching Chen, Mau-Shin Chi, Hsu-Chao Hao, Yue-Cune Chang, Satoru Takeda, Kwan-Hwa Chi and Yu-Shan Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:27

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in respo...

    Authors: Hamid Beiki, Abbas Pakdel, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad and James M. Reecy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:2

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  4. Content type: Methodology article

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (http://​www.​imgt.​org), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier Uni...

    Authors: Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida and Marie-Paule Lefranc

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:35

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I family of genes encode for molecules that have well-conserved structures, but have evolved to perform diverse functions. The availability of the gray, short-t...

    Authors: Katina V. Krasnec, Anthony T. Papenfuss and Robert D. Miller

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:43

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  6. Content type: Research article

    High-throughput sequencing of T cell receptor (TCR) genes is a powerful tool for analyses of antigen specificity, clonality and diversity of T lymphocytes. Here, we developed a new TCR repertoire analysis meth...

    Authors: Kazutaka Kitaura, Tadasu Shini, Takaji Matsutani and Ryuji Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:38

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors used to control innate immune responses such as proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. Trem genes be...

    Authors: Jun Kasamatsu, Mengyao Deng, Masahiro Azuma, Kenji Funami, Hiroaki Shime, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Masanori Kasahara and Tsukasa Seya

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:9

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis represent a complex interaction between the skin and infiltrating immune cells, resulting in damage to the skin barrier and increased inflamma...

    Authors: Pauline Muscat, Karessa Mercado, Kathryn Payne, Hardip Chahal and Graham Jones

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:69

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  9. Content type: Software

    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and frequency analysis is a powerful tool for studying the immune repertoire, immune responses and immune dysregulation in health and d...

    Authors: Michael J Moorhouse, David van Zessen, Hanna IJspeert, Saskia Hiltemann, Sebastian Horsman, Peter J van der Spek, Mirjam van der Burg and Andrew P Stubbs

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:59

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Near universal administration of vaccines mandates intense pharmacovigilance for vaccine safety and a stringently low tolerance for adverse events. Reports of autoimmune diseases (AID) following vaccination ha...

    Authors: Peter B McGarvey, Baris E Suzek, James N Baraniuk, Shruti Rao, Brian Conkright, Samir Lababidi, Andrea Sutherland, Richard Forshee and Subha Madhavan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:61

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  11. Content type: Research article

    To understand the role of genetic factors on chromosome 1 in the regulation of spontaneous arthritis in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL_1RA), we previously used speed congenic breeding t...

    Authors: Nan Deng, Yan Jiao, Yanhong Cao, Xiaoyun Liu, Yonghui Ma, Karen A Hasty, David D Brand, John M Stuart and Weikuan Gu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:57

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In the immune system, the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) increase gradually during ageing. Through B cell development, the Ig heavy chain expression is modulated by a regulatory region at the 3’ of the co...

    Authors: Eliseo Serone, Cristina Daleno, Nicola Principi, Laura Porretti, Valentina Iacoacci, Cesare Gargioli, Andrea Magrini, Renato Massoud, Pietro D’Addabbo, Marco Cattalini, Vincenzo Giambra, Alessandro Plebani, Susanna Esposito and Domenico Frezza

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:45

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The naïve antibody repertoire is initially dependent upon the number of germline V(D)J genes and the ability of recombined heavy and light chains to pair. Individual VH and VL genes are not equally represented...

    Authors: Sean P Fitzsimmons, Antonina G Aydanian, Kathleen J Clark and Marjorie A Shapiro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:51

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of antibody variable regions has emerged as a powerful tool in systems immunology by providing quantitative molecular information on polyclonal humoral immune responses. Reprod...

    Authors: Victor Greiff, Ulrike Menzel, Ulrike Haessler, Skylar C Cook, Simon Friedensohn, Tarik A Khan, Mark Pogson, Ina Hellmann and Sai T Reddy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:40

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Deep-sequencing methods are rapidly developing in the field of B-cell receptor (BCR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity. These promise to revolutionise our understanding of adaptive immune dynamics, identify ...

    Authors: Rachael JM Bashford-Rogers, Anne L Palser, Saad F Idris, Lisa Carter, Michael Epstein, Robin E Callard, Daniel C Douek, George S Vassiliou, George A Follows, Mike Hubank and Paul Kellam

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:29

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  16. Content type: Research article

    This report describes a method for the generation of global gene expression profiles from low frequent B-cell subsets by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RNA amplification. However, some of the di...

    Authors: Kim Steve Bergkvist, Mette Nyegaard, Martin Bøgsted, Alexander Schmitz, Julie Støve Bødker, Simon Mylius Rasmussen, Martin Perez-Andres, Steffen Falgreen, Anders Ellern Bilgrau, Malene Krag Kjeldsen, Michael Gaihede, Martin Agge Nørgaard, John Bæch, Marie-Louise Grønholdt, Frank Svendsen Jensen, Preben Johansen…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:3

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Host genetic variations may contribute to disease susceptibility of influenza. IL-1A and IL-1B are important inflammatory cytokines that mediate the inflammation and initiate the immune response against virus ...

    Authors: Yingxia Liu, Shaoyuan Li, Guoliang Zhang, Guang Nie, Zhizhong Meng, Dongting Mao, Chang Chen, Xinchun Chen, Boping Zhou and Gucheng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:37

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  18. Content type: Research article

    MicroRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in the control of gene expression. To investigate the role of microRNA in multiple sclerosis (MS), we performed genome-wide expression analyses of m...

    Authors: Margareta Jernås, Clas Malmeström, Markus Axelsson, Intawat Nookaew, Hans Wadenvik, Jan Lycke and Bob Olsson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:32

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Genetic polymorphisms observed in various disease states associated with sensitivity or resistance to specific treatments have been a robust area of investigation for decades, with the potential to allow clini...

    Authors: Yun-Ping Lim, Yu-An Hsu, Kun-Hsi Tsai, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Wen-Ling Liao, Dong-Zong Hung, Ni Tien, Chien-Yih Lin and Lei Wan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:21

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  20. Content type: Research article

    In holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas such as western Kenya, severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) < 6.0 g/dL, with any density parasitemia] is the most common clinical manifestation of s...

    Authors: Winnie A Okeyo, Elly O Munde, Wilson Okumu, Evans Raballah, Samuel B Anyona, John M Vulule, John M Ong’echa, Douglas J Perkins and Collins Ouma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    CD72 is an inhibitory co-receptor expressed on B cells. We previously demonstrated significant association of the polymorphism of the CD72 gene with susceptibility to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in i...

    Authors: Yuki Hitomi, Takahiro Adachi, Naoyuki Tsuchiya, Zen-Ichiro Honda, Katsushi Tokunaga and Takeshi Tsubata

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:72

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Host genetics influence the outcome of HCV disease. HCV is also highly mutable and escapes host immunity. HCV genotypes are geographically distributed and HCV subtypes have been shown to have distinct repertoi...

    Authors: Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Adrian J Puren and Sheila M Bowyer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:67

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The P2X 7 receptor plays an important role in cytokine release during the inflammatory response in vivo. Polymorphisms within the P2X 7 ...

    Authors: Anke Wesselius, Martijn JL Bours, Ilja CW Arts, Esther HE Theunisz, Piet Geusens and Pieter C Dagnelie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:64

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) represented an innovative method for the genome manipulation in vertebrates. ZFN introduced targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and initiated non-homologous end joini...

    Authors: Nils-Holger Zschemisch, Silke Glage, Dirk Wedekind, Edward J Weinstein, Xiaoxia Cui, Martina Dorsch and Hans-Jürgen Hedrich

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:60

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli with...

    Authors: Paul J Groot-Kormelink, Lindsay Fawcett, Paul D Wright, Martin Gosling and Toby C Kent

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:57

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  26. Content type: Research article

    As a member of the TNF superfamily, TRAIL could induce human tumor cell apoptosis through its cognate death receptors DR4 or DR5, which can induce formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) and a...

    Authors: Chunxia Qiao, Meiyun Hu, Leiming Guo, Ming Lv, Zhou Lin, Jing Geng, Xiaoling Lang, Xinying Li, Yan Li, Yuanfang Ma, Jiannan Feng and Beifen Shen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:40

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  27. Content type: Methodology article

    Immunological parameters are hard to measure. A well-known problem is the occurrence of values below the detection limit, the non-detects. Non-detects are a nuisance, because classical statistical analyses, li...

    Authors: Paul HC Eilers, Esther Röder, Huub FJ Savelkoul and Roy Gerth van Wijk

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:37

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are required for proper maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Folate receptor 4 (FR4) is expressed at high levels in transforming growth factor-beta (TG...

    Authors: Yi Tian, Guoqiang Wu, Jun-Chao Xing, Jun Tang, Yi Zhang, Ze-Min Huang, Zheng-Cai Jia, Ren Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Tian, Shu-Feng Wang, Xiao-Ling Chen, Li Wang, Yu-Zhang Wu and Bing Ni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:30

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is an important failure mechanism of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Here we examine whether the particular genetic variants can lead to increased susceptibility to PJI develop...

    Authors: Anna Stahelova, Frantisek Mrazek, Matej Smizansky, Martin Petrek and Jiri Gallo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:25

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  30. Content type: Research article

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes play a critical role in the development of T helper lymphocytes, including Th2 cells, and directly program chromatin structure at Th2 cytokine genes. Different versions of ...

    Authors: Andrea L Wurster, Patricia Precht, Kevin G Becker, William H Wood III, Yongqing Zhang, Zhong Wang and Michael J Pazin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:9

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The prophenoloxidase-activating (PO activating) system plays an important role in the crustacean innate immunity, particularly in wound healing and pathogen defense. A key member of this system is prophenoloxi...

    Authors: In-Kwon Jang, Zhenguo Pang, Jiaping Yu, Su-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Cheol Seo and Yeong-Rok Cho

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:70

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  32. Content type: Research article

    We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-infl...

    Authors: Anthony M Szema, Sayyed A Hamidi, Antonius Koller and Dwight W Martin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:66

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The selection of relevant genes for sample classification is a common task in many gene expression studies. Although a number of tools have been developed to identify optimal gene expression signatures, they o...

    Authors: Giacomo Tuana, Viola Volpato, Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Francesca Zolezzi, Fabio Stella and Maria Foti

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:50

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  34. Content type: Research article

    We previously showed that co-immunization with a protein antigen and a DNA vaccine coding for the same antigen induces CD40low IL-10high tolerogenic DCs, which in turn stimulates the expansion of antigen-specific...

    Authors: Shuang Geng, Yang Yu, Youmin Kang, George Pavlakis, Huali Jin, Jinyao Li, Yanxin Hu, Weibin Hu, Shuang Wang and Bin Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:27

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNFA) is the canonical member of the TNF superfamily, which plays a major role in both inflammation and apoptosis. To evaluate the role of TNFs in otitis media (OM), the most common dise...

    Authors: Joerg Ebmeyer, Anke Leichtle, Michelle Hernandez, Umay Ebmeyer, Jacob Husseman, Kwang Pak, Holger Sudhoff, David Broide, Stephen I Wasserman and Allen F Ryan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:12

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