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Innate immunity

Section edited by Simon Carding

This section aims to publish studies covering all aspects of innate immunity, including those concerned with the evolution of innate immunity and its role in pathogen defence in invertebrates and vertebrates.

  1. Content type: Methodology article

    Resident macrophages (Mø) originating from yolk sac Mø and/or foetal monocytes colonise tissues/organs during embryonic development. They persist into adulthood by self-renewal at a steady state, independent o...

    Authors: Kazushige Ogawa, Mayu Tsurutani, Aya Hashimoto and Miharu Soeda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:34

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  2. Content type: Research article

    C5a is important for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-mediated activation of neutrophils. The present study aimed to assess the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in ANCA-mediated a...

    Authors: Jian Hao, Tiegang Lv, Liping Xu, Mao Ran and Kaili Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:22

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  3. Content type: Research article

    CD44 is a multifunctional molecule that plays major roles in both leukocyte recruitment and tissue proliferation. Since mucosal hyperplasia and leukocyte infiltration of the middle ear cavity are major feature...

    Authors: Hyun Woo Lim, Kwang Pak, Arwa Kurabi and Allen F. Ryan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:20

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis in neonates is hampered by non-specific symptoms and the lack of rapid responding laboratory measures. The biomarker soluble CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) seems promising in the d...

    Authors: Iris van Maldeghem, Charlotte M. Nusman and Douwe H. Visser

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:17

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an RNA binding protein that plays a critical role in regulating proinflammatory immune responses by destabilizing target mRNAs via binding to their AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3′-UT...

    Authors: Yafang Tu, Xiongfei Wu, Fengyun Yu, Jianzhong Dang, Juan Wang, Yaxun Wei, Zhitao Cai, Zhipeng Zhou, Wenliang Liao, Lian Li and Yi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:13

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Natural killer cell responses to virally-infected or transformed cells depend on the integration of signals received through inhibitory and activating natural killer cell receptors. Human Leukocyte Antigen nul...

    Authors: Alexandra Tremblay-McLean, Sita Coenraads, Zahra Kiani, Franck P. Dupuy and Nicole F. Bernard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:8

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  7. Content type: Methodology article

    Oncolytic viruses have been proposed to be employed as a potential treatment of cancer. Well targeted, they will serve the purpose of cracking tumor cells without causing damage to normal cells. In this catego...

    Authors: Wenqing Ma, Hongbin He and Hongmei Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:40

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages are tissue resident immune cells important for host defence and homeostasis. During diabetes, macrophages and other innate immune cells are known to have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is beli...

    Authors: Sofia Pavlou, Jaime Lindsay, Rebecca Ingram, Heping Xu and Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:24

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Fra-1 (fosl1) belongs to the activator protein1 (AP-1) family inducing IL-11 expression in oxidative stress condition. IL-11 plays a pivotal role in protecting epithelial barriers integrity. In this study, we inv...

    Authors: Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba Shohan, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Nader Bagheri, Amin Soltani, Fatemeh Deris, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani and Ehsan Razmara

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:17

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The need for rapid and accurate comparison of panels of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and subsequent rational down selection, presents several challenges for modern vaccine development. Here we describe a me...

    Authors: Sumera Y. Younis, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Simon Heuking, Vinod Sommandas, Livia Brunner, Nicole vd.Werff, Patrice Dubois, Martin Friede, Clemens Kocken, Nicolas Collin and Ed Remarque

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:6

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with...

    Authors: Melanie Lohrberg, Reinhard Pabst and Jörg Wilting

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:5

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  12. Content type: Research Article

    Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to ...

    Authors: Wensheng Chen, Darrell Pilling and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:47

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pat...

    Authors: Unni Gopinathan, Reidun Øvstebø, Berit Sletbakk Brusletto, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Peter Kierulf, Petter Brandtzaeg and Jens Petter Berg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:46

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  14. Content type: Methodology article

    Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especial...

    Authors: Akane Tanaka, Joyce To, Bronwyn O’Brien, Sheila Donnelly and Maria Lund

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:43

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages ...

    Authors: Darrell Pilling, Elkin Galvis-Carvajal, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Nehemiah Cox and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:30

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. The pur...

    Authors: Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Wei Gao, Wenhua Li, Chuang Meng, Qiuxiang Yan, Yuyang Wang, Xiaohui Zhou, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:21

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Delayed wound healing reduces the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Thus, understanding the mechanism of wound healing is indispensable for better management. However, the role of innate immunity in wound hea...

    Authors: Kazuhide Takada, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Naoko Hirohata, Quang Duy Trinh, Atsuyoshi Nishina, Hirokazu Kimura and Satoshi Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:19

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  18. Content type: Research article

    In the context of tumor immunology, tumor cells have been shown to overexpress CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal directed to macrophages to escape from phagocytosis by interacting with Signal Regulatory Protein ...

    Authors: Gizem Bener, Alex J. Félix, Cristina Sánchez de Diego, Isabel Pascual Fabregat, Carlos J. Ciudad and Véronique Noé

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:32

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 modulates porcine mononuclear phagocytes from Peyer’s patches (PPMPs) and induces a differential production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to Toll-l...

    Authors: Kohichiro Tsukida, Takuya Takahashi, Hikaru Iida, Paulraj Kanmani, Yoshihito Suda, Tomonori Nochi, Shuichi Ohwada, Hisashi Aso, Sou Ohkawara, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Tadao Saito, Julio Villena and Haruki Kitazawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:21

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to mo...

    Authors: Julia A. Najera, Eduardo A. Bustamante, Nikki Bortell, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Timothy Ravasi and Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:7

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  21. Content type: Research article

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for the development and function of neutrophils. miR-130a is highly expressed during early neutrophil development and regulates target proteins important for this process. miRN...

    Authors: Corinna Cavan Pedersen, Jan Christian Refsgaard, Ole Østergaard, Lars Juhl Jensen, Niels Henrik Helweg Heegaard, Niels Borregaard and Jack Bernard Cowland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:70

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells have been implicated in lung inflammation in humans and also shown to be a key cell type in inducing allergic lung inflammation in mouse models. iNKT cells differentiate...

    Authors: Rosa Berga-Bolaños, Archna Sharma, Farrah C. Steinke, Kalyani Pyaram, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Dil A. Sultana, Jessie X. Fang, Cheong-Hee Chang, Hai-Hui Xue, Nicola M. Heller and Jyoti Misra Sen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:62

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in human atheroma. In vascular cells in vitro, Nur77 expression is induced by pro-inflammatory factors, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL).

    Authors: Liu-hua Hu, Ying Yu, Shu-xuan Jin, Peng Nie, Zhao-hua Cai, Ming-li Cui, Shi-qun Sun, Hua Xiao, Qin Shao, Ling-hong Shen and Ben He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:54

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Innate immunity and tissue proliferation play important roles in otitis media (OM), the most common disease of childhood. CJUN terminal kinase (JNK) is potentially involved in both processes.

    Authors: William Yao, Meredith Frie, Jeffrey Pan, Kwang Pak, Nicholas Webster, Stephen I Wasserman and Allen F Ryan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:46

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics) have been proposed to improve piglets’ immune system to avoid intestinal infections and reduce unproductive inflammation after weaning. Previously, it was demonstrat...

    Authors: Yoshihito Suda, Julio Villena, Yu Takahashi, Shoichi Hosoya, Yohsuke Tomosada, Kohichiro Tsukida, Tomoyuki Shimazu, Hisashi Aso, Masanori Tohno, Mitsuharu Ishida, Seiya Makino, Shuji Ikegami and Haruki Kitazawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:24

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The milk-derived protein human Casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) has recently been detected in blood cells and was shown to possess proinflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CSN1S1...

    Authors: Stefan Vordenbäumen, Achim Braukmann, Irina Altendorfer, Ellen Bleck, Joachim Jose and Matthias Schneider

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:46

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Activin A is a pleiotrophic regulatory cytokine, the ablation of which is neonatal lethal. Healthy human alveolar macrophages (AMs) constitutively express activin A, but AMs of patients with pulmonary alveolar...

    Authors: Heidi Dalrymple, Barbara P Barna, Anagha Malur, Achut G Malur, Mani S Kavuru and Mary Jane Thomassen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2013 14:41

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The development of ascites in cirrhotic patients generally heralds a deterioration in their clinical status. A differential gene expression profile between alcohol- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosi...

    Authors: Ana Tapia-Abellán, María Martínez-Esparza, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Trinidad Hernández-Caselles, Cristina Martínez-Pascual, Manuel Miras-López, José Such, Rubén Francés and Pilar García-Peñarrubia

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:42

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Upon stimulation with different cytokines, macrophages can undergo classical or alternative activation to become M1 or M2 macrophages. Alternatively activated (or M2) macrophages are defined by their expressio...

    Authors: Dapeng Gong, Wei Shi, Sun-ju Yi, Hui Chen, John Groffen and Nora Heisterkamp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:31

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Considerable evidence supports the concept of active communication between the nervous and immune systems. One class of such communicators are the neuropeptides (NPs). Recent reports have highlighted the antim...

    Authors: Daria Augustyniak, Adam Jankowski, Paweł Mackiewicz, Agnieszka Skowyra, Jan Gutowicz and Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:24

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the defense aga...

    Authors: Miriam I Jimenez-Perez, Luis F Jave-Suarez, Pablo C Ortiz-Lazareno, Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar, Oscar Gonzalez-Ramella, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Georgina Hernandez-Flores, Ana L Pereira-Suarez, Adrian Daneri-Navarro and Susana del Toro-Arreola

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2012 13:7

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  32. Content type: Research article

    In comparison to higher vertebrates, fish are thought to rely heavily on innate immune system for initial protection against pathogen invasion because their acquired immune system displays a considerably poor ...

    Authors: Genciana Terova, Anna G Cattaneo, Elena Preziosa, Giovanni Bernardini and Marco Saroglia

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:69

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the highly specialized antigen presenting cells of the immune system that play a key role in regulating immune responses. DCs can efficiently initiate immune responses or induce toler...

    Authors: Anna Sanecka, Marleen Ansems, Amy C Prosser, Katharina Danielski, Kathrin Warner, Martijn H den Brok, Bastiaan JH Jansen, Dagmar Eleveld-Trancikova and Gosse J Adema

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:57

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant immune cells within the tumor stroma and play a crucial role in tumor development. Although clinical investigations indicate that high levels of macrop...

    Authors: Benfan Wang, Qinyan Li, Li Qin, Siting Zhao, Jinyan Wang and Xiaoping Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:43

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as...

    Authors: Leslee Sprague, Maria Muccioli, Michelle Pate, Evan Meles, John McGinty, Harika Nandigam, Amritha K Venkatesh, Ming-yu Gu, Kristen Mansfield, Andrew Rutowski, Omowaleola Omosebi, Maria C Courreges and Fabian Benencia

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:35

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The Shc isoforms is known to mediate immune responses and has been indicated as a negative regulator of autoimmunity and lymphocyte activation. We aimed to evaluate the immune-regulatory role of Shc in rat bon...

    Authors: Kuang-Den Chen, Li-Wen Hsu, Shigeru Goto, Chin-Wei Yeh, Toshiaki Nakano, Chia-Yun Lai, Yen-Chen Chang, Chiung-Hui Hou, Chih-Chi Wang, Yu-Fan Cheng, King-Wah Chiu, Chih-Che Lin and Chao-Long Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:32

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  37. Content type: Methodology article

    The screening of peptide-based epitopes has been studied extensively for the purpose of developing therapeutic antibodies and prophylactic vaccines that can be potentially useful for treating cancer and infect...

    Authors: Dongbum Kim, Sanghoon Kwon, Jae Won Rhee, Kwang Dong Kim, Young-Eun Kim, Cheung-Seog Park, Myeong Jun Choi, Jun-Gyo Suh, Doo-Sik Kim, Younghee Lee and Hyung-Joo Kwon

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:29

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. The immune suppressive effects of Tregs should however be limited in case effective immunity is required agai...

    Authors: Wendy WC van Maren, Stefan Nierkens, Liza W Toonen, Judith M Bolscher, Roger PM Sutmuller and Gosse J Adema

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:23

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is widely recognized as an essential element in the triggering of innate immunity, binding pathogen-associated molecules such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in initiating a cascad...

    Authors: Humberto M Garay-Malpartida, Roberta F Mourão, Marluce Mantovani, Icaro A Santos, Mari C Sogayar and Anna C Goldberg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:18

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Neutrophil migration to an inflamed site constitutes the first line of the innate immune response against invading microorganisms. Given the crucial role of endogenous lectins in neutrophil mobilization and ac...

    Authors: Selene Elifio-Esposito, Luciane Tomazeli, Carolina Schwartz, Ana Paula Gimenez, Gabriel M Fugii, Luiz Claudio Fernandes, Luciana FM Zishler, Patrícia M Stuelp-Campelo and Andréa N Moreno

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:10

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Design of tumour specific immunotherapies using the patients' own dendritic cells (DC) is a fast advancing scientific field. The functional qualities of the DC generated in vitro are critical, and today's gold st...

    Authors: Arnt-Ove Hovden, Marie Karlsen, Roland Jonsson, Hans Jørgen Aarstad and Silke Appel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:2

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern-recognition molecule present in serum, which is involved in the innate immune defense by activating complement and promoting opsonophagocytosis. Dendritic cells (DCs) a...

    Authors: Mingyong Wang, Yani Zhang, Yue Chen, Liyun Zhang, Xiao Lu and Zhengliang Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2011 12:1

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