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  1. Content type: Research article

    Susceptibility to infectious diseases is directed, in part, by the interaction between the invading pathogen and host macrophages. This study examines the influence of genetic background on host-pathogen inter...

    Authors: Christine A Wells, Timothy Ravasi, Geoffrey J Faulkner, Piero Carninci, Yasushi Okazaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Matthew Sweet, Brandon J Wainwright and David A Hume

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:5

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has acquired through evolution a number of genes to try to evade immune recognition of the virus-infected cell. Many of these mechanisms act to inhibit the MHC class I antigen pres...

    Authors: Mar Valés-Gómez, Helena Browne and Hugh T Reyburn

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:4

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Neutrophils are critical in the defense against potentially harmful microorganisms, but their excessive and inappropriate activation can contribute significantly to tissue damage and a worsening pathology. Thr...

    Authors: Ronald D Mathison, A Dean Befus, Joseph S Davison and Richard C Woodman

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:3

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Insulin dependent (i.e., "type 1") diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is considered to be a T cell mediated disease in which TH1 and Tc autoreactive cells attack the pancreatic islets. Among the beta-cell antigens implicat...

    Authors: Rosetta Pedotti, Maija Sanna, Mindy Tsai, Jason DeVoss, Lawrence Steinman, Hugh McDevitt and Stephen J Galli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:2

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Immature B lymphocytes and certain B cell lymphomas undergo apoptotic cell death following activation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction pathway. Several biochemical changes occur in resp...

    Authors: Robert C Hsueh, Adrienne M Hammill, Jamie A Lee, Jonathan W Uhr and Richard H Scheuermann

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:16

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages, osteoclasts, dendritic cells, and microglia are highly specialized cells that belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity within the mononuclear phagocyte s...

    Authors: Christine Servet-Delprat, Sylvie Arnaud, Pierre Jurdic, Serge Nataf, Marie-France Grasset, Caroline Soulas, Chantal Domenget, Olivier Destaing, Aymeric Rivollier, Magali Perret, Christiane Dumontel, Daniel Hanau, Gary L Gilmore, Marie-Françoise Belin, Chantal Rabourdin-Combe and Guy Mouchiroud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:15

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Various microbial, inflammatory and immune signals regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), determining their ability to interact with naïve T cells and to produce cytokines that direct T cell developm...

    Authors: Amy Wesa and Anne Galy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:14

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atheroscler...

    Authors: Mikko PS Ares, Maria Stollenwerk, Anneli Olsson, Bengt Kallin, Stefan Jovinge and Jan Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:13

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The function of the thymic microenvironment is to promote thymocyte maturation, in part via regulation of thymocyte proliferation and cell death. Defects in fetal thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development and f...

    Authors: Dong-ming Su and Nancy R Manley

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:12

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  10. Content type: Research article

    T-cells extravasation and CNS parenchyma infiltration during autoimmune neurodegenerative disease can be evoked by local antigen presenting cells. Studying the chemoattracting potential of spinal perivascular ...

    Authors: Nils Hofmann, Nina Lachnit, Michael Streppel, Brigitte Witter, Wolfram F Neiss, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius and Doychin N Angelov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:11

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The ZAS family is composed of proteins that regulate transcription via specific gene regulatory elements. The amino-DNA binding domain (ZAS-N) and the carboxyl-DNA binding domain (ZAS-C) of a representative fa...

    Authors: Carl E Allen, Chi-ho Mak and Lai-Chu Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:10

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  12. Content type: Research article

    While dealing with mixed in vitro lymphocyte cultures one is faced with the problem of relative contributions of different populations to the activity being studied. This is especially true in the controversy rel...

    Authors: R Nirmala and PR Narayanan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:9

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE respon...

    Authors: Walderez O Dutra, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David Dunne, Luiza Fosenca Cecchini, Lúcia Fraga, Morven Roberts, Alda Maria Soares-Silveira, Michelle Webster, Hans Yssel and Kenneth J Gollob

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:8

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  14. Content type: Research article

    "Alternatively-activated" macrophages are found in Th2-mediated inflammatory settings such as nematode infection and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Due in part to a lack of markers, these cells have not been...

    Authors: P'ng Loke, Meera G Nair, John Parkinson, David Guiliano, Mark Blaxter and Judith E Allen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:7

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  15. Content type: Research article

    In asthma and other allergic disorders, the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen induces the cells to release histamine and other mediators of inflammation, as well as to produce certain cytokines and c...

    Authors: Koichi Sayama, Maximilian Diehn, Kentaro Matsuda, Carolina Lunderius, Mindy Tsai, See-Ying Tam, David Botstein, Patrick O Brown and Stephen J Galli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:5

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  16. Content type: Methodology article

    Gene transfer studies in primary T cells have suffered from the limitations of conventional viral transduction or transfection techniques. Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are an attractive alternative...

    Authors: Vincent Hurez, Robin Dzialo-Hatton, James Oliver, R James Matthews and Casey T Weaver

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:4

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages, upon encounter with micro-organisms or stimulated by cytokines, produce various effector molecules aimed at destroying the foreign agents and protecting the organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)...

    Authors: Pierre-Jacques Ferret, Emmanuelle Soum, Olivier Negre and Didier Fradelizi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:3

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  18. Content type: Research article

    T helper epitopes are necessary for the induction of high titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies. We are interested in the epitope modification of intact proteins as a method to enhance their immunogenicity...

    Authors: Jeanette M Mucha, Marcia M Stickler, AJ Poulose, Grant Ganshaw, Mae Saldajeno, Kathy Collier, Manley T Huang and Fiona A Harding

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:2

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Intrathymic development and selection of the T lymphocyte repertoire is restricted by the interactions of the T cell antigen receptor and CD4 or CD8 co-receptors with self major histocompatibility complex mole...

    Authors: Hector Martinez-Valdez, Vicente Madrid-Marina and Amos Cohen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:1

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages sense microorganisms through activation of members of the Toll-like receptor family, which initiate signals linked to transcription of many inflammation associated genes. In this paper we examine w...

    Authors: David A Hume, David M Underhill, Matthew J Sweet, Adrian O Ozinsky, Foo Y Liew and Alan Aderem

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:11

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  21. Content type: Research article

    T cells from HIV+ and aged individuals show parallels in terms of suppressed proliferative activity and interleukin-2 (I1-2) production and an increased number of CD8+ CD28- T cells. In order to compare cytokine ...

    Authors: Edward H Eylar, Carmen E Lefranc, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Ineabely Báez, Sol Luis Colón-Martinez, Nayra Rodriguez and T B Breithaupt

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:10

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The immune system is particularly sensitive to stress. Although acute stress generally has positive effects, chronic stress typically provokes immunosuppression. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in i...

    Authors: Lourdes Domínguez-Gerpe and Manuel Rey-Méndez

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:7

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The identification of antigens on human DC has been a very difficult and elusive task because of the lack of appropriate reagents. Therefore, we evaluated by flow cytometry a panel of mAb that recognize antige...

    Authors: Rafael Nunez and Luis Filgueira

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:6

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Increasing evidence suggests that the effect of HLA-E on Natural Killer (NK) cell activity can be affected by the nature of the peptides bound to this non-classical, MHC class Ib molecule. However, its reduced...

    Authors: James Stevens, Etienne Joly, John Trowsdale and Geoffrey W Butcher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:5

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell development and function. Mutations of Btk elicit X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency in the mouse. Btk has been proposed ...

    Authors: Michael G Tomlinson, Douglas B Woods, Martin McMahon, Matthew I Wahl, Owen N Witte, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Joseph B Bolen and James A Johnston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:4

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The Tec family kinases are implicated in signaling from lymphocyte antigen receptors and are activated following phosphorylation by Src kinases. For most Tec kinases, this activation requires an interaction be...

    Authors: Mario Chamorro, Michael J Czar, Jayanta Debnath, Genhong Cheng, Michael J Lenardo, Harold E Varmus and Pamela L Schwartzberg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:3

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Lymphoid tissues constitute basic structures where specific immune responses take place. This leads to the development of germinal centres (GCs), migration of cells and the generation of memory cells. Here, we...

    Authors: Berta Vidal-Rubio, Marta Sanchez-Carril, Josefina Oliver-Morales, África González-Femandez and Francisco Gambón-Deza

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:2

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Peroxynitrite is increasingly proposed as a contributor to defence system in marine bivalve. It can be formed by combinaison of superoxide and nitric oxide, and can react with tyrosine residues of proteins giv...

    Authors: Jean Torreilles and Bernard Romestand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:1

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  29. Content type: Research article

    NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytopl...

    Authors: Loree J Kim, Heather A Ferguson, Anita G Seto and James A Goodrich

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2000 1:1

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