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  1. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent inflammatory mediator that also stimulates the immune response. In addition, it promotes polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, chemotaxis, chemokinesis and modulates cytokine...

    Authors: Roberto Nicolete, Cristina Rius, Laura Piqueras, Peter J Jose, Carlos A Sorgi, Edson G Soares, Maria J Sanz and Lúcia H Faccioli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. We have previously reported that ATP treatment of M bovis-BCG infected human macrophages induces P2X7 receptor-dependent killing of intracellular mycobacteria. The mechanism mediating this bactericidal effect has...

    Authors: Debasis Biswas, Omar S Qureshi, Wing-Yiu Lee, Joanne E Croudace, Manuela Mura and David A Lammas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:35

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Wegener's Granulomatosis and Microscopic Polyangiitis are life-threatening systemic necrotizing vasculitides of unknown aetiology. The appearance of circulating antibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (A...

    Authors: Plinio R Hurtado, Lisa Jeffs, Jodie Nitschke, Mittal Patel, Ghafar Sarvestani, John Cassidy, Pravin Hissaria, David Gillis and Chen Au Peh

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:34

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The environmental factors that determine the elevated levels of polyclonal IgE observed in populations living in the Tropics are poorly understood but may include geohelminth infections. We investigated the as...

    Authors: Philip J Cooper, Neal Alexander, Ana-Lucia Moncayo, Susana M Benitez, Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca and George E Griffin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:33

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in initiating effective cell-mediated immune responses, but are dysfunctional and anergic in breast cancer. Reversal of this dysfunction and establishment of optimal D...

    Authors: Sukchai Satthaporn, Mark M Aloysius, Richard A Robins, Chandan Verma, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Alasdair J Mckechnie, Mohamad El-Sheemy, Wichai Vassanasiri, David Valerio, David Clark, Jibril A Jibril and Oleg Eremin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:32

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mamma...

    Authors: Eun-Mi Park, Jung-Ha Kang, Jung Soo Seo, GunDo Kim, Jongkyeong Chung and Tae-Jin Choi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:31

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an acquired autoimmune blistering disorder in which greater than 80% of active patients produce autoantibodies to the desmosomal protein desmogelin 3 (Dsg3). As the disease progresse...

    Authors: Joo Chuan Tong and Animesh A Sinha

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:30

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Multiple immune evasion strategies by which HCV establishes chronic infection have been proposed, including manipulation of cytokine responses. Prior infection with HIV increases the likelihood of chronic HCV ...

    Authors: Lisa Barrett, Maureen Gallant, Constance Howley, M Ian Bowmer, Geri Hirsch, Kevork Peltekian and Michael Grant

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:28

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of ba...

    Authors: Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Cecilia A Dogi, Carolina Maldonado Galdeano, Esteban Carmuega, Ricardo Weill and Gabriela Perdigón

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Activation of integrins in response to inside-out signaling serves as a basis for leukocyte arrest on endothelium, and migration of immune cells. Integrin-dependent adhesion is controlled by the conformational...

    Authors: Alexandre Chigaev, Anna Waller, Or Amit and Larry A Sklar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:26

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The role of Mycobacteria in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) has been a contentious subject for many years. Recently, our laboratory showed that spontaneous colitis in IL-10-/- mice is driven in part by antig...

    Authors: Udai P Singh, Rajesh Singh, Shailesh Singh, Russell K Karls, Frederick D Quinn, Dennis D Taub and James W Lillard Jr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:25

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) serve a sentinel role allowing the host to efficiently sense and adapt to the presence of danger signals. Herein we have directly compared the genome-level expression ...

    Authors: Hector R Wong, Kelli Odoms and Bhuvaneswari Sakthivel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:24

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screen...

    Authors: Zorica Juranic, Jelena Radic, Aleksandra Konic-Ristic, Svetislav Jelic, Biljana Mihaljevic, Ivan Stankovic, Suzana Matkovic, Irina Besu and Dušica Gavrilović

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:22

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis is an important causative agent of pertussis, an infectious disease of the respiratory tract. After introduction of whole-cell vaccines (wP) in the 1950's, pertuss...

    Authors: Sander Banus, Rachel M Stenger, Eric R Gremmer, Jan AMA Dormans, Frits R Mooi, Tjeerd G Kimman and Rob J Vandebriel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:21

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Basic helix-loop-helix E proteins are transcription factors that play crucial roles in T cell development by controlling thymocyte proliferation, differentiation and survival. E protein functions can be repres...

    Authors: Yuanzheng Yang, Hong-Cheng Wang and Xiao-Hong Sun

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:20

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and d...

    Authors: Valentina Bordignon, Francesca Palamara, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Antonella Vento, Arianna Aiello, Mauro Picardo, Fabrizio Ensoli and Antonio Cristaudo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:19

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In rural Gambia, birth season predicts infection-related adult mortality, providing evidence that seasonal factors in early life may programme immune development. This study tested whether lymphocyte subpopula...

    Authors: Andrew C Collinson, Pa Tamba Ngom, Sophie E Moore, Gareth Morgan and Andrew M Prentice

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:18

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Besides few data concerning the antiseptic properties against a range of microbial agents and the anti-inflammatory potential both in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the influence of Eucalyptus oil (E O)...

    Authors: Annalucia Serafino, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Federica Andreola, Manuela Zonfrillo, Luana Mercuri, Memmo Federici, Guido Rasi, Enrico Garaci and Pasquale Pierimarchi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:17

    Content type: Research article

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  19. We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells ...

    Authors: Harry D Dawson, Gary Collins, Robert Pyle, Michael Key and Dennis D Taub

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:16

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (VV) that has lost approximately 15% of the VV genome, along with the ability to replicate in most mammalian cells. It has demonst...

    Authors: Luzheng Liu, Rahul Chavan and Mark B Feinberg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:15

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Human neutrophils are key players of innate immunity, and influence inflammatory and immune reactions through the production of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Despite major advances in our understanding of...

    Authors: Thornin Ear and Patrick P McDonald

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:14

    Content type: Methodology article

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  22. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown promising results as a cytokine adjuvant for antiviral vaccines and in various models of tumor gene therapy. To explore whether the targeting...

    Authors: Matthias Tenbusch, Seraphin Kuate, Bettina Tippler, Nicole Gerlach, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer and Klaus Überla

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:13

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland ...

    Authors: Maria José Menezes, Dirceu J Costa, Jorge Clarêncio, José Carlos Miranda, Aldina Barral, Manoel Barral-Netto, Cláudia Brodskyn and Camila I de Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:12

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet ...

    Authors: Reece G Marillier, Chesney Michels, Elizabeth M Smith, Lizette CE Fick, Mosiuoa Leeto, Benjamin Dewals, William GC Horsnell and Frank Brombacher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:11

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Dendritic cells (DC) play the key role in directing antigen-specific immune responses and manipulating their function may be a useful tool for immunotherapy. The balance between immune stimulation and toleranc...

    Authors: Marta E Polak, Nicola J Borthwick, Francis G Gabriel, Martine J Jager and Ian A Cree

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:10

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Single-cell assays of immune function are increasingly used to monitor T cell responses in immunotherapy clinical trials. Standardization and validation of such assays are therefore important to interpretation...

    Authors: Holden T Maecker, Jeffrey Hassler, Janice K Payne, Amanda Summers, Karrie Comatas, Manar Ghanayem, Michael A Morse, Timothy M Clay, Herbert K Lyerly, Sonny Bhatia, Smita A Ghanekar, Vernon C Maino, Corazon delaRosa and Mary L Disis

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:9

    Content type: Methodology article

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  27. Protein antigens and their specific epitopes are formulation targets for epitope-based vaccines. A number of prediction servers are available for identification of peptides that bind major histocompatibility c...

    Authors: Hong Huang Lin, Surajit Ray, Songsak Tongchusak, Ellis L Reinherz and Vladimir Brusic

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:8

    Content type: Research article

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  28. As part of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases funded collaborative project, we have performed over 150 microarray experiments measuring the response of C57/BL6 mouse bone marrow macrophage...

    Authors: Martin Korb, Alistair G Rust, Vesteinn Thorsson, Christophe Battail, Bin Li, Daehee Hwang, Kathleen A Kennedy, Jared C Roach, Carrie M Rosenberger, Mark Gilchrist, Daniel Zak, Carrie Johnson, Bruz Marzolf, Alan Aderem, Ilya Shmulevich and Hamid Bolouri

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:7

    Content type: Database

    Published on:

  29. In celiac disease gluten, the disease-inducing toxic component in wheat, induces the secretion of autoantibodies which are targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2). These autoantibodies are produced in the sm...

    Authors: Satumarja M Stenman, Katri Lindfors, Ilma R Korponay-Szabo, Olli Lohi, Päivi Saavalainen, Jukka Partanen, Katri Haimila, Herbert Wieser, Markku Mäki and Katri Kaukinen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:6

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Xenotransplantation holds the promise of providing an unlimited supply of donor organs for terminal patients with organ failure. Pre-existing natural antibodies to the Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNac-R (αGal) carbohydrat...

    Authors: Tomoko Doki, Michael Mello, Dennis Mock, Jacqueline M Evans and Mary Kearns-Jonker

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:5

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains poorly understood. It is par...

    Authors: Marcia R Saban, Michael A O'Donnell, Robert E Hurst, Xue-Ru Wu, Cindy Simpson, Igor Dozmorov, Carole Davis and Ricardo Saban

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:4

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies with complex clinical and immunological phenotypes. The recent discovery that some CVID patients show mo...

    Authors: Ulrich Salzer, Carla Neumann, Jens Thiel, Cristina Woellner, Qiang Pan-Hammarström, Vassilis Lougaris, Tina Hagena, Johannes Jung, Jennifer Birmelin, Likun Du, Ayse Metin, David A Webster, Alessandro Plebani, Viviana Moschese, Lennart Hammarström, Alejandro A Schäffer…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:3

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules bind, and present to T cells, short peptides derived from intracellular processing of proteins. The peptide repertoire of a specific molecule is to a la...

    Authors: John Sidney, Bjoern Peters, Nicole Frahm, Christian Brander and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2008 9:1

    Content type: Research article

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  34. During inflammation, β2-integrins mediate leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium accompanied by the activation of the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk.

    Authors: David Frommhold, Ingrid Mannigel, Jürgen Schymeinsky, Attila Mocsai, Johannes Poeschl, Barbara Walzog and Markus Sperandio

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:31

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The activation and effector phenotype of T cells depend on the strength of the interaction of the TcR with its cognate antigen and additional signals provided by cytokines and by co-receptors. Lymphocytes sens...

    Authors: Oscar Ramírez-Pliego, Diana L Escobar-Zárate, Gemma M Rivera-Martínez, Mayte G Cervantes-Badillo, Fernando R Esquivel-Guadarrama, Gabriela Rosas-Salgado, Yvonne Rosenstein and M Angélica Santana

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:30

    Content type: Research article

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  36. CD146 is a well described homotypic adhesion molecule found on endothelial cells and a limited number of other cell types. In cells from the peripheral circulation, CD146 has also been reported to be on activa...

    Authors: Mohamed F Elshal, Sameena S Khan, Nalini Raghavachari, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Jennifer Barb, James J Bailey, Peter J Munson, Michael A Solomon, Robert L Danner and J Philip McCoy Jr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:29

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective function of Fas, autoimmune manifestations that predominantly involve blood cells, polyclonal accumulation...

    Authors: Elisa Cerutti, Maria F Campagnoli, Massimo Ferretti, Emanuela Garelli, Nicoletta Crescenzio, Angelo Rosolen, Annalisa Chiocchetti, Michael J Lenardo, Ugo Ramenghi and Umberto Dianzani

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:28

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The number of subjects that can be recruited in immunological studies and the number of immunological parameters that can be measured has increased rapidly over the past decade and is likely to continue to exp...

    Authors: Bernd Genser, Philip J Cooper, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Mauricio L Barreto and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:27

    Content type: Commentary

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  39. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDC) comprise approximately 0.2 to 0.8% of the blood mononuclear cells and are the primary type 1 interferon (IFN), producing cells, secreting high levels of IFN in response to vi...

    Authors: Woubalem Birmachu, Raymond M Gleason, Barbara J Bulbulian, Christie L Riter, John P Vasilakos, Kenneth E Lipson and Yuri Nikolsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:26

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The regulatory processes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation are central to developmental biology. Particularly well studied in this respect is the lymphoid system due to its importance for basi...

    Authors: Ivan G Costa, Stefan Roepcke and Alexander Schliep

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:25

    Content type: Methodology article

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  41. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes death of 2–3 million people every year. The persistence of the pathogenic mycobacteria inside the macrophage occurs through modulation of host cell signaling which allows t...

    Authors: Niladri Ganguly, Pham H Giang, Sandip K Basu, Fayaz Ahmad Mir, Imran Siddiqui and Pawan Sharma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:24

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for eosinop...

    Authors: Georgina M Sansome, Anna R Young, Els NT Meeusen and Robert J Bischof

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:23

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cathepsin D is a well-characterized aspartic protease expressed ubiquitously in lysosomes. Cathepsin D deficiency is associated with a spectrum of pathologies leading ultimately to death. Cathepsin D is expres...

    Authors: Calogero Tulone, Yasuo Uchiyama, Marco Novelli, Nicholas Grosvenor, Paul Saftig and Benjamin M Chain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:22

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based a...

    Authors: Vivian Goodell, Corazon dela Rosa, Meredith Slota, Beth MacLeod and Mary L Disis

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:21

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  45. The challenge of gene expression studies is to reliably quantify levels of transcripts, but this is hindered by a number of factors including sample availability, handling and storage. The PAXgene™ Blood RNA S...

    Authors: Enitan D Carrol, Fiona Salway, Stuart D Pepper, Emma Saunders, Limangeni A Mankhambo, William E Ollier, C Anthony Hart and Phillip Day

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:20

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria are a way of delivering bioactive constituents to targets in the gastrointestinal tract. We reported previously that the fermentation of milk at constant pH 6 by L. h...

    Authors: Gabriel Vinderola, Chantal Matar and Gabriela Perdigón

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Stem cell transplantation as therapy for hematological disorders is often hampered by severe graft-versus-host-disease. This may be reduced by umbilical cord blood transplantation, an effect that has been attr...

    Authors: Andreas Nitsche, Meixia Zhang, Theresa Clauss, Wolfgang Siegert, Kay Brune and Andreas Pahl

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:18

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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