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  1. All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine ...

    Authors: Ricardo Saban, Cindy Simpson, Carole A Davis, Igor Dozmorov, Julie Maier, Ben Fowler, Michael A Ihnat, Robert E Hurst, Barry K Wershil and Marcia R Saban

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Cryptococcosis, a fatal fungal infection of the central nervous system, is one of the major killers of AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts. The causative agent, Cryptococcus neoformans, has a remarkab...

    Authors: Hansong Ma, Joanne E Croudace, David A Lammas and Robin C May

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:15

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the host defence against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria, and Mycobacteria. The key mediator of bacteria-directed cyt...

    Authors: Michael Walch, Sonja Latinovic-Golic, Ana Velic, Hanna Sundstrom, Claudia Dumrese, Carsten A Wagner, Peter Groscurth and Urs Ziegler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Siglec-7, a sialic acid binding inhibitory receptor expressed by NK cells is masked in vivo by a so far unknown ligand. It shows a strong binding prevalence for α-2,8-linked disialic acids in vitro.

    Authors: Jeannette M Moebius, Darius Widera, Juergen Schmitz, Christian Kaltschmidt and Christoph Piechaczek

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:13

    Content type: Research article

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  5. CD8α enhances the responses of antigen-specific CTL activated through TCR through binding MHC class I, favoring lipid raft partitioning of TCR, and inducing intracellular signaling. CD8α is also found on dendr...

    Authors: Derrick J Gibbings, Marcelo Marcet-Palacios, Yokananth Sekar, Marcus CY Ng and A Dean Befus

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:12

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used mouse model for multiple sclerosis (MS). During the of progression of EAE, microglia,...

    Authors: Madhuri Bhasin, Muzhou Wu and Stella E Tsirka

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:10

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have b...

    Authors: Sonja Latinovic-Golic, Michael Walch, Hanna Sundstrom, Claudia Dumrese, Peter Groscurth and Urs Ziegler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:9

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. A...

    Authors: Brian Crucian, Pascal Lee, Raymond Stowe, Jeff Jones, Rainer Effenhauser, Raymond Widen and Clarence Sams

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:7

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is an effective treatment for bladder superficial carcinoma and it is being tested in interstitial cystitis patients, but its precise mechanism of action remains poo...

    Authors: Marcia R Saban, Cindy Simpson, Carole Davis, Gemma Wallis, Nicholas Knowlton, Mark Barton Frank, Michael Centola, Randle M Gallucci and Ricardo Saban

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. We have developed a cell-based vaccine that features the expression of both CD80 and CD86 on the surface of a murine neuroblastoma cell line. The cellular immunity induced by this vaccine is enhanced by treatm...

    Authors: Jin Zheng, M Eric Kohler, Qingrong Chen, James Weber, Javed Khan, Bryon D Johnson and Rimas J Orentas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:4

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Natural antibodies directed at carbohydrates reject porcine xenografts. They are initially expressed in germline configuration and are encoded by a small number of structurally-related germline progenitors. Th...

    Authors: Mary Kearns-Jonker, Natasha Barteneva, Robert Mencel, Namath Hussain, Irina Shulkin, Alan Xu, Margaret Yew and Donald V Cramer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:3

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Exposure of macrophages to bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in activation of the NF-κB transcription factor, which orchestrates a gene expression programme that underpins the macroph...

    Authors: Omar Sharif, Viacheslav N Bolshakov, Stephanie Raines, Peter Newham and Neil D Perkins

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2007 8:1

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been used to preserve and standardize immunologic measurements for multicenter studies, however, effects of cryopreservation on cytokine responses are...

    Authors: Wayne G Shreffler, Cynthia M Visness, Melissa Burger, William W Cruikshank, Howard M Lederman, Maite de la Morena, Kristine Grindle, Agustin Calatroni, Hugh A Sampson and James E Gern

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:29

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. Neutrophils are non-dividing cells with poor survival after isolation. Consequently, exogenous gene expression in neutrophils is challenging. We report here the transfection of genes and expression of active p...

    Authors: Jennifer L Johnson, Beverly A Ellis, Daniela B Munafo, Agnieszka A Brzezinska and Sergio D Catz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:28

    Content type: Methodology article

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  15. Vitamin A (VA) deficiency induces a type 1 cytokine response and exogenously provided retinoids can induce a type 2 cytokine response both in vitro and in vivo. The precise mechanism(s) involved in this phenotypi...

    Authors: Harry D Dawson, Gary Collins, Robert Pyle, Michael Key, Ashani Weeraratna, Vishwa Deep-Dixit, Celeste N Nadal and Dennis D Taub

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:27

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Successful inhibition of alloimmune activation in organ transplantation remains one of the key events in achieving a long-term graft survival. Since T lymphocytes are largely responsible for alloimmune activat...

    Authors: Ashwani K Khanna and Mandeep R Mehra

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:26

    Content type: Research article

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  17. One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from...

    Authors: Ali Azizi, David E Anderson, Masoud Ghorbani, Katrina Gee and Francisco Diaz-Mitoma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:25

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Discovery of tumor-selective antibodies or antibody fragments is a promising approach for delivering therapeutic agents to antigen over-expressing cancers. Therefore it is important to develop methods for the ...

    Authors: Ulrik B Nielsen, Dmitri B Kirpotin, Edward M Pickering, Daryl C Drummond and James D Marks

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:24

    Content type: Methodology article

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  19. The T cell attracting chemokine CCL18 is produced by antigen presenting cells and a role for CCL18 has been suggested in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of these con...

    Authors: Antoine WT van Lieshout, Robbert van der Voort, Linda MP le Blanc, Mieke F Roelofs, B Willem Schreurs, Piet LCM van Riel, Gosse J Adema and Timothy RDJ Radstake

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:23

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection immortalizes primary B cells in vitro and generates lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), which are used for several purposes in immunological and genetic studies. Purinergic rec...

    Authors: Dong Hyeon Lee, Kyu Sang Park, In Deok Kong, Jun Woo Kim and Bok Ghee Han

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:22

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Members of the United States Armed Forces receive a series of vaccinations during their course of service. To investigate the influence of multiple vaccinations on innate immunity, we measured concentrations o...

    Authors: Beda Brichacek, Christophe Vanpouille, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Larisa Dubrovsky, Gregory Martin, Gary Simon and Michael Bukrinsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:21

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Antinuclear antibodies are useful diagnostic tools in several autoimmune diseases. However, the routine detection of nuclear envelope autoantibodies using immunofluorescence (IF) is not always easy to perform ...

    Authors: Vagia Tsiakalou, Elena Tsangaridou, Hara Polioudaki, Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli, Meri Koulentaki, Tonia Akoumianaki, Elias Kouroumalis, Elias Castanas and Panayiotis A Theodoropoulos

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:20

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardio...

    Authors: Lauren Oko, Bethany Aduddell-Swope, Derall Willis, Robyn Hamor, Teresa A Coons, Brian Hjelle and Tony Schountz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:18

    Content type: Methodology article

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  24. Presence of antigen presenting cells, expression of costimulatory molecules, the strength of first signal and cytokine milieu are quite important in influencing the reactivation of differentiated Th1 and Th2 c...

    Authors: Vinod Singh and Javed N Agrewala

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:17

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The activation induced T cell specific adapter protein (TSAd), encoded by SH2D2A, interacts with and modulates Lck activity. Several transcript variants of TSAd mRNA exist, but their biological significance remai...

    Authors: Stine Granum, Vibeke Sundvold-Gjerstad, Ke-Zheng Dai, Kristin Melkevik Kolltveit, Kjersti Hildebrand, Henrik S Huitfeldt, Tor Lea and Anne Spurkland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:15

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Circulating memory T cells can be divided into tissue-specific subsets, which traffic through distinct tissue compartments during physiologic immune surveillance, based on their expression of adhesion molecule...

    Authors: Pia Kivisäkk, Barbara Tucky, Tao Wei, James J Campbell and Richard M Ransohoff

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. The early B lymphopoiesis in mammals is regulated through close interactions with stromal cells and components of the intracellular matrix in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Although B lymphopoiesis has...

    Authors: Guri Døsen, Ellen Tenstad, Marit Kveine Nygren, Heidi Stubberud, Steinar Funderud and Edith Rian

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:13

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Leukocyte recruitment across blood vessels is fundamental to immune surveillance and inflammation. Lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes is mediated by the adhesion molecule, L-selectin, which binds to s...

    Authors: Jiwei Yang, Steven D Rosen, Philip Bendele and Stefan Hemmerich

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. For immune monitoring studies during HIV vaccine clinical trials, whole blood specimens from HIV seropositive (HIV+) patients may be collected at multiple sites and sent to a central location for peripheral blood...

    Authors: Joyce J Ruitenberg, Candice B Mulder, Vernon C Maino, Alan L Landay and Smita A Ghanekar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:11

    Content type: Methodology article

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  30. Natural killer (NK) cells in the cow have been elusive due to the lack of specific NK cell markers, and various criteria including a CD3-/CD2+ phenotype have been used to identify such cells. The recent character...

    Authors: Preben Boysen, Ingrid Olsen, Ingvild Berg, Siri Kulberg, Grethe M Johansen and Anne K Storset

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:10

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A major challenge in the application of marrow transplantation as a route to immunological tolerance of a transplanted organ is to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment with minimal myelosuppressiv...

    Authors: Luis Graca, Stephen Daley, Paul J Fairchild, Stephen P Cobbold and Herman Waldmann

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Subtype A is a major strain in the HIV-1 pandemic in eastern Europe, central Asia and in certain regions of east Africa, notably in rural Kenya. While considerable effort has been focused upon mapping and defi...

    Authors: Jeffrey R Currier, Unchalee Visawapoka, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Carl J Mason, Deborah L Birx, Francine E McCutchan and Josephine H Cox

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:8

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Antigen epitopes provide valuable information useful for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Recently, more and more databases focusing on different types of epitopes have become available. Conformat...

    Authors: Jian Huang and Wataru Honda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:7

    Content type: Database

    Published on:

  34. Generation of functional CD4+CD8-CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in the murine thymus depends on FoxP3. Removal of the thymus from neonatal mice has been shown to result in a multiple organ autoimmune disease phe...

    Authors: Qi Jiang, Hua Su, Geoffry Knudsen, Whitney Helms and Lishan Su

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  35. β-1→3-D-glucans represent a pathogen-associated molecular pattern and are able to modify biological responses. Employing a comprehensive methodological approach, the aim of our in vitro study was to elucidate nov...

    Authors: Juergen Luhm, Ulrich Langenkamp, Jenny Hensel, Christoph Frohn, Joerg M Brand, Holger Hennig, Lothar Rink, Petra Koritke, Nadine Wittkopf, David L Williams and Antje Mueller

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Nasal polyp constitutes a benign growth process in the nasal and sinus mucosa. RCAS1 (receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells) is a protein expressed mainly by various human cancer cells. It is...

    Authors: Magdalena Dutsch-Wicherek, Romana Tomaszewska, Pawel Strek, Lukasz Wicherek and Jacek Skladzien

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The use of porcine cells and organs as a source of xenografts for human patients would vastly increase the donor pool; however, both humans and Old World primates vigorously reject pig tissues due to xenoantib...

    Authors: Joanne L Zahorsky-Reeves, Clare R Gregory, Donald V Cramer, Insiyyah Y Patanwala, Andrew E Kyles, Dominic C Borie and Mary K Kearns-Jonker

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in females than in males, whereas males have higher mortality associated with infectious diseases. To increase our understanding of this sexual dimorphism in the immune s...

    Authors: Rebecca Lamason, Po Zhao, Rashmi Rawat, Adrian Davis, John C Hall, Jae Jin Chae, Rajeev Agarwal, Phillip Cohen, Antony Rosen, Eric P Hoffman and Kanneboyina Nagaraju

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2006 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  39. MHC class I-peptide tetramers are currently utilised to characterize CD8+ T cell responses at single cell level. The generation and use of MHC class II tetramers to study antigen-specific CD4+ T cells appears les...

    Authors: Monica Moro, Virginia Cecconi, Chiara Martinoli, Eliana Dallegno, Barbara Giabbai, Massimo Degano, Nicholas Glaichenhaus, Maria Pia Protti, Paolo Dellabona and Giulia Casorati

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:24

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  40. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) play a central role in controlling B-cell response maturation, isotype switching and the maintenance of B-cell memory. These functions are based on prolonged preservation of a...

    Authors: Dagmar EH Heinemann and J Hinrich Peters

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:23

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Metallothionein (MT) is a cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein that can be induced by a variety of agents. Modulation of MT levels has also been shown to alter specific immune functions. We have noticed that t...

    Authors: Xiuyun Yin, David A Knecht and Michael A Lynes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:21

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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