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  1. Transgenic TCR mice are often used experimentally as a source of T cells of a defined specificity. One of the most widely used transgenic TCR models is the OT-1 transgenic mouse in which the CD8+ T cells expre...

    Authors: Kate O Wright, Debbie A Murray, Nicholas I Crispe and Robert H Pierce

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:20

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  2. Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB), a bacterial superantigen secreted by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphyloccocus aureus, results in the expansion and eventual clonal deletion and anergy of Vβ8+ T ce...

    Authors: Melanie J Ragin, Jianfang Hu, Andrew J Henderson and Avery August

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. We previously showed that local use of periodate oxidized ATP (oATP, a selective inhibitor of P2X7 receptors for ATP) in rat paw treated with Freund's adjuvant induced a significant reduction of hyperalgesia H...

    Authors: Alessandro Fulgenzi, Giacomo Dell'Antonio, Chiara Foglieni, Elena Dal Cin, Paolo Ticozzi, Josè S Franzone and Maria Elena Ferrero

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:18

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Cryopreservation of PBMC and/or overnight shipping of samples are required for many clinical trials, despite their potentially adverse effects upon immune monitoring assays such as MHC-peptide tetramer stainin...

    Authors: Holden T Maecker, James Moon, Sonny Bhatia, Smita A Ghanekar, Vernon C Maino, Janice K Payne, Kristine Kuus-Reichel, Jennie C Chang, Amanda Summers, Timothy M Clay, Michael A Morse, H Kim Lyerly, Corazon DeLaRosa, Donna P Ankerst and Mary L Disis

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:17

    Content type: Methodology article

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  5. Estrogens and androgens have extensive effects on the immune system, for example they suppress both T and B lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow. Submandibular glands are sexually dimorphic in rodents, resu...

    Authors: Ulrika Islander, Bengt Hasséus, Malin C Erlandsson, Caroline Jochems, Sofia Movérare Skrtic, Marie Lindberg, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Claes Ohlsson and Hans Carlsten

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  6. CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoi...

    Authors: Deshun Lu, Xiu-juan Yuan, Robert J Evans Jr, Amy T Pappas, He Wang, Eric W Su, Chafiq Hamdouchi and Chandrasekar Venkataraman

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:15

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Tuberculosis causes 3 million deaths annually. The most common site of tuberculosis is pulmonary however; extra-pulmonary forms of the disease also remain prevalent. Restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depe...

    Authors: Zahra Hasan, Irfan Zaidi, Bushra Jamil, M Aslam Khan, Akbar Kanji and Rabia Hussain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories p...

    Authors: Holden T Maecker, Aline Rinfret, Patricia D'Souza, Janice Darden, Eva Roig, Claire Landry, Peter Hayes, Josephine Birungi, Omu Anzala, Miguel Garcia, Alexandre Harari, Ian Frank, Ruth Baydo, Megan Baker, Jennifer Holbrook, Janet Ottinger…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:13

    Content type: Methodology article

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  9. In this work we present evidence that the p53 tumor suppressor protein and NF-κB transcription factors could be related through common descent from a family of ancestral transcription factors regulating cellul...

    Authors: David H Dreyfus, Masayuki Nagasawa, Erwin W Gelfand and Lucy Y Ghoda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Antibody genes are diversified by somatic hypermutation (SHM), gene conversion and class-switch recombination. All three processes are initiated by the activation-induced deaminase (AID). According to a DNA de...

    Authors: Vladimir I Mayorov, Igor B Rogozin, Linda R Adkison, Christin Frahm, Thomas A Kunkel and Youri I Pavlov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β superfamily and are secreted proteins with pleiotropic roles in many different cell types. A potential role of BMP-6 in the immune system has been implied...

    Authors: Christian Kersten, Einar A Sivertsen, Marit E Hystad, Lise Forfang, Erlend B Smeland and June H Myklebust

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The recruitment of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs relies on interactions of circulating cells with high endothelial venules (HEV). HEV are exclusive to these organs under physiological conditions, bu...

    Authors: José L Pablos, Begoña Santiago, Durwin Tsay, Mark S Singer, Guillermo Palao, María Galindo and Steven D Rosen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Real-time PCR is becoming a common tool for detecting and quantifying expression profiling of selected genes. Cytokines mRNA quantification is widely used in immunological research to dissect the early steps o...

    Authors: Philippe Boeuf, Inès Vigan-Womas, Delphine Jublot, Séverine Loizon, Jean-Christophe Barale, Bartholomew Dicky Akanmori, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon and Charlotte Behr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:5

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. The function of CD57+ CD4+ T cells, constituting a major subset of germinal center T (GC-Th) cells in human lymphoid tissues, has been unclear. There have been contradictory reports regarding the B cell helping f...

    Authors: Jong R Kim, Hyung W Lim, Seung G Kang, Peter Hillsamer and Chang H Kim

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in later February 2003, as a new epidemic form of life-threatening infection caused by a novel coronavirus. However, the immune-pathogenesis of SARS is poorly u...

    Authors: Renji Reghunathan, Manikandan Jayapal, Li-Yang Hsu, Hiok-Hee Chng, Dessmon Tai, Bernard P Leung and Alirio J Melendez

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Synthetic peptides have played a useful role in studies of protein kinase substrates and interaction domains. Synthetic peptide arrays and libraries, in particular, have accelerated the process. Several factor...

    Authors: Carl Saxinger, Thomas P Conrads, David J Goldstein and Timothy D Veenstra

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2005 6:1

    Content type: Methodology article

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  17. Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit ...

    Authors: Bennett J Davenport, Derall G Willis, Joseph Prescott, Regina M Farrell, Teresa A Coons and Tony Schountz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:23

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Catecholamines, such as epinephrine, are elaborated in stress responses, and mediate vasoconstriction to cause elevation in systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure. Our previous study has shown that IL...

    Authors: David S Chi, S Matthew Fitzgerald, Shannon Pitts, Karen Cantor, Ellis King, Steven A Lee, Shau-Ku Huang and Guha Krishnaswamy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The CD38 transmembrane glycoprotein is an ADP-ribosyl cyclase that moonlights as a receptor in cells of the immune system. Both functions are independently implicated in numerous areas related to human health....

    Authors: Enza Ferrero, Monia Orciani, Paola Vacca, Erika Ortolan, Sergio Crovella, Fausto Titti, Franca Saccucci and Fabio Malavasi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  20. There are three major B-cell compartments in peripheral lymphoid organs: the germinal center (GC), the mantle zone (MNZ) and the marginal zone (MGZ). Unique sets of B-cells reside in these compartments, and th...

    Authors: Yulei Shen, Javeed Iqbal, Li Xiao, Ryan C Lynch, Andreas Rosenwald, Louis M Staudt, Simon Sherman, Karen Dybkaer, Guimei Zhou, James D Eudy, Jan Delabie, Timothy W McKeithan and Wing C Chan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Immunoglobulin rearrangement involves random and imprecise processes that act to both create and constrain diversity. Two such processes are the loss of nucleotides through the action of unknown exonuclease(s)...

    Authors: Katherine JL Jackson, Bruno Gaeta, William Sewell and Andrew M Collins

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Chemokines are involved in many biological activities ranging from leukocyte differentiation to neuronal morphogenesis. Despite numerous reports describing chemokine function, little is known about the molecul...

    Authors: JE Nagel, RJ Smith, L Shaw, D Bertak, VD Dixit, EM Schaffer and DD Taub

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Extracellular nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP) exert a wide range of biological effects in blood cells mediated by multiple ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Although pharmacolog...

    Authors: Lingwei Wang, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Anders Bengtsson and David Erlinge

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. These mice have great importance in evaluating the function of genes. However, their utility depends on the mainten...

    Authors: Erin E McClelland, Kristy Damjanovich, Kyle Gardner, Zack J Groesbeck, Maggie S Ma, Megan Nibley, Kelly S Richardson, Maureen Wilkinson, Linda C Morrison, Paul Bernhardt and Wayne K Potts

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. We have devised a simple and efficient fluorescence-based method to track antigen uptake and processing in human B lymphoblastoid cells (B-LCL). Fluorescein labelled subtilisin was used to optimize antigen upt...

    Authors: Namrata S Patil, David L Wong, Katherine D Collier and Hugh C McDonald

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The Eph receptors are the largest receptor tyrosine kinase family. Several family members are expressed in hematopoietic cells. Previously, the expression of a member of this family, EphA2, was identified on d...

    Authors: Else Munthe, Eivind Farmen Finne and Hans-Christian Aasheim

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have...

    Authors: Yanina Eberhard, Susana Ortiz, Alejandro Ruiz Lascano, Raquel Kuznitzky and Horacio Marcelo Serra

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of impo...

    Authors: Mohamed Z Satti, Pierre Cahen, Per S Skov, Sarah Joseph, Frances M Jones, Colin Fitzsimmons, Karl F Hoffmann, Claus Reimert, H Curtis Kariuki, Francis Kazibwe, Joseph K Mwatha, Gachuhi Kimani, Birgitte J Vennervald, John H Ouma, Narcis B Kabatereine and David W Dunne

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Immune recognition of vascular endothelial cells (EC) has been implicated in allograft rejection, protection against pathogens, and lymphocyte recruitment. However, EC pervade nearly all tissues and predominat...

    Authors: Annette L Rothermel, Yinong Wang, Jeffrey Schechner, Barry Mook-Kanamori, William C Aird, Jordan S Pober, George Tellides and David R Johnson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Authors: Pierre Lau, Claire Amadou, Hélène Brun, Virginie Rouillon, Fiona McLaren, Anne-France Le Rolle, Margaret Graham, Geoffrey W Butcher and Etienne Joly

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:4

    Content type: Erratum

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Immunology 2003 4:7

  31. Cytokine mRNA quantification is widely used to investigate cytokine profiles, particularly in small samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is currently the most reliable method of quantifying low-level t...

    Authors: André Peinnequin, Catherine Mouret, Olivier Birot, Antonia Alonso, Jacques Mathieu, Didier Clarençon, Diane Agay, Yves Chancerelle and Eric Multon

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:3

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  32. Lipid rafts have been shown to play a role in T cell maturation, activation as well as in the formation of immunological synapses in CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, the differential expression of...

    Authors: Valeria de Mello Coelho, Dzung Nguyen, Banabihari Giri, Allyson Bunbury, Eric Schaffer and Dennis D Taub

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) establishes a persistent infection in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. A strong antibody response occurs in response to SNV infection, but the role of the innate immune response is u...

    Authors: Tony Schountz, Renata Green, Bennett Davenport, Amie Buniger, Tiffany Richens, J Jeffrey Root, Forbes Davidson, Charles H Calisher and Barry J Beaty

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2004 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) provides a multiparameter alternative to ELISPOT assays for rapid quantitation of antigen-specific T cells. To increase the throughput of CFC assays, we have optimized methods for...

    Authors: Maria A Suni, Holli S Dunn, Patricia L Orr, Rian de Laat, Elizabeth Sinclair, Smita A Ghanekar, Barry M Bredt, John F Dunne, Vernon C Maino and Holden T Maecker

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:9

    Content type: Methodology article

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  35. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are known to exert a strong adjuvant effect on Th1 immune responses. Although several genes have been reported, no comprehensive study of the ...

    Authors: Atsushi Kato, Toshiki Homma, Jonathan Batchelor, Noriko Hashimoto, Shosuke Imai, Hiroshi Wakiguchi, Hirohisa Saito and Kenji Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:8

    Content type: Research article

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  36. So-called "immunoprivileged sites" are tissues or organs where slow allograft rejection correlates with low levels of expression of MHC class I molecules. Whilst classical class I molecules are recognised by c...

    Authors: Pierre Lau, Claire Amadou, Hélène Brun, Virginie Rouillon, Fiona McLaren, Anne-France Le Rolle, Margaret Graham, Geoffrey W Butcher and Etienne Joly

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2004 5:4

  37. The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick develo...

    Authors: Antonio Rodríguez-Burgos

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Susceptibility to infectious diseases is directed, in part, by the interaction between the invading pathogen and host macrophages. This study examines the influence of genetic background on host-pathogen inter...

    Authors: Christine A Wells, Timothy Ravasi, Geoffrey J Faulkner, Piero Carninci, Yasushi Okazaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Matthew Sweet, Brandon J Wainwright and David A Hume

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has acquired through evolution a number of genes to try to evade immune recognition of the virus-infected cell. Many of these mechanisms act to inhibit the MHC class I antigen pres...

    Authors: Mar Valés-Gómez, Helena Browne and Hugh T Reyburn

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2003 4:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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