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  1. Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling ...

    Authors: Joseph A. Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M. Stemmer and Allen Rosenspire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:37

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activatio...

    Authors: Wenjun Mou, Wei Han, Xiaoli Ma, Xiaolin Wang, Hong Qin, Wen Zhao, Xiaoya Ren, Xi Chen, Wei Yang, Haiyan Cheng, Xisi Wang, Hui Zhang, Xin Ni, Huanmin Wang and Jingang Gui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  3. IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (http://​www.​imgt.​org), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier Uni...

    Authors: Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida and Marie-Paule Lefranc

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:35

    Content type: Methodology article

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  4. The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF...

    Authors: Marian-Christopher Pott, Natalie Frede, Jennifer Wanders, Lennart Hammarström, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Cristina Glocker, Fariba Tahami and Bodo Grimbacher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:34

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of...

    Authors: Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen and Dawei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:33

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific...

    Authors: Xin-yao Wu, Yu-feng Yin, Jia-lin Teng, Li-wei Zhang and Cheng-de Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:32

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological le...

    Authors: Anass Bouchnita, Gennady Bocharov, Andreas Meyerhans and Vitaly Volpert

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):29

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  8. In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro leve...

    Authors: James K. Peterson, Alison M. Kesson and Nicholas J. C. King

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):24

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  9. There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remot...

    Authors: Olivier Garraud, Wael N. Hozzein and Gamal Badr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):23

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  10. The RATE tool was recently developed to computationally infer the HLA restriction of given epitopes from immune response data of HLA typed subjects without additional cumbersome experimentation.

    Authors: Sinu Paul, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Veronique Schulten, Luise Westernberg, John Sidney, Bjoern Peters and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  11. Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient’s body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) a...

    Authors: Maria Kuznetsova, Julia Lopatnikova, Julia Khantakova, Rinat Maksyutov, Amir Maksyutov and Sergey Sennikov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:31

    Content type: Methodology article

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  12. Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages ...

    Authors: Darrell Pilling, Elkin Galvis-Carvajal, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Nehemiah Cox and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:30

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, da...

    Authors: Annette Audigé, Mary-Aude Rochat, Duo Li, Sandra Ivic, Audrey Fahrny, Christina K. S. Muller, Gustavo Gers-Huber, Renier Myburgh, Simon Bredl, Erika Schlaepfer, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Stefan P. Kuster and Roberto F. Speck

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:28

    Content type: Research article

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  14. We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the ...

    Authors: Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N. McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C. Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O. Eko, Carolyn M. Black, Joseph U. Igietseme and Qing He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:27

    Content type: Research article

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  15. T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional ...

    Authors: Noriyuki Takahashi, Takayuki Saitoh, Nanami Gotoh, Yasuhiro Nitta, Lobna Alkebsi, Tetsuhiro Kasamatsu, Yusuke Minato, Akihiko Yokohama, Norifumi Tsukamoto, Hiroshi Handa and Hirokazu Murakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:26

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogeni...

    Authors: Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang and Ivan-Chen Cheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:25

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. The pur...

    Authors: Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Wei Gao, Wenhua Li, Chuang Meng, Qiuxiang Yan, Yuyang Wang, Xiaohui Zhou, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:21

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Delayed wound healing reduces the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Thus, understanding the mechanism of wound healing is indispensable for better management. However, the role of innate immunity in wound hea...

    Authors: Kazuhide Takada, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Naoko Hirohata, Quang Duy Trinh, Atsuyoshi Nishina, Hirokazu Kimura and Satoshi Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:19

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are p...

    Authors: Cristina Vazquez-Mateo, Justin Collins, Michelle Fleury and Hans Dooms

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:18

    Content type: Research article

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  20. To assess the impact of disease activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Authors: Benjamin Chaigne, Carlo Chizzolini, Thomas Perneger, Marten Trendelenburg, Uyen Huynh-Do, Eric Dayer, Thomas Stoll, Johannes von Kempis and Camillo Ribi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:17

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Pri...

    Authors: Bernhard Banas, Carsten A. Böger, Gerhard Lückhoff, Bernd Krüger, Sascha Barabas, Julia Batzilla, Mathias Schemmerer, Josef Köstler, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Ralf Wagner, Ludwig Deml, Joachim Leicht and Bernhard K. Krämer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:15

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to...

    Authors: Sascha Barabas, Theresa Spindler, Richard Kiener, Charlotte Tonar, Tamara Lugner, Julia Batzilla, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner and Ludwig Deml

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:14

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) w...

    Authors: Shyamashree Banerjee, Parth Sarthi Sen Gupta and Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute liver injury and the complex mechanisms include the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in many species. However, immuno-pathological changes duri...

    Authors: Xi-Yao Huang, Abdur Rahman Ansari, Hai-Bo Huang, Xing Zhao, Ning-Ya Li, Zhi-Jian Sun, Ke-Mei Peng, Juming Zhong and Hua-Zhen Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:12

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicit...

    Authors: Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Xiaomei Wang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang and Xueqiong Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:11

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Allergy to cat epithelia is highly prevalent, being the major recommendation for allergy sufferers its avoidance. However, this is not always feasible. Allergen specific immunotherapy is therefore recommended ...

    Authors: María Morales, Mayte Gallego, Victor Iraola, Marta Taulés, Eliandre de Oliveira, Raquel Moya and Jerónimo Carnés

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:10

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Patients experiencing large thermal injuries are susceptible to opportunistic infections that can delay recovery and lead to sepsis. Dendritic cells (DC) are important for the detection of pathogens and activa...

    Authors: Leon Bae, Julia K. Bohannon, Weihua Cui, Monika Vinish and Tracy Toliver-Kinsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:9

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hyperactive secretion and pathogenic effects of interleukin (IL)-17 and IgA have been detected in different arthropathies. Recent evidence has revealed that TH17 cytokines regulate mucosal IgA secretion. However,...

    Authors: Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, Juan Eduardo Silva, Mabel Noemí Dave, María Gabriela Lacoste, Héctor Tamashiro, Rodrigo Blas, Alicia Munarriz, Gabriel Adrián Rabinovich and María Silvia Di Genaro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:8

    Content type: Research article

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  29. While tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi) and other biologics are very effective against autoimmune diseases, they can also cause infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to clarify wh...

    Authors: Shoichi Fukui, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshiko Takahashi, Naoki Iwamoto, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Akihiko Okayama and Atsushi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:7

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Comprehensive understanding of cellular immune subsets involved in regulation of tumor progression is central to the development of cancer immunotherapies. Single cell immunophenotyping has historically been a...

    Authors: Elma Kadić, Raymond J. Moniz, Ying Huo, An Chi and Ilona Kariv

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:6

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform...

    Authors: Kurt Hanevik, Einar Kristoffersen, Kristine Mørch, Kristin Paulsen Rye, Steinar Sørnes, Staffan Svärd, Øystein Bruserud and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:5

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised althoug...

    Authors: Ying-Ying Hey, Benjamin Quah and Helen C. O’Neill

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:4

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Oxidative damage present in obese/overweight mothers may lead to further oxidative stress conditions or inflammation in maternal and cord blood samples. Thirty-four pregnant women/newborn pairs were included i...

    Authors: María Hernández-Trejo, Araceli Montoya-Estrada, Yessica Torres-Ramos, Aurora Espejel-Núñez, Alberto Guzmán-Grenfell, Rosa Morales-Hernández, Maricruz Tolentino-Dolores and Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:3

    Content type: Research Article

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  34. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress tumor immunity by inhibiting immune cells. Manipulation of Treg cells represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisph...

    Authors: Hsien Liu, Shih-Han Wang, Shin-Cheh Chen, Ching-Ying Chen, Jo-Lin Lo and Tsun-Mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:45

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The Luminex bead-based multiplex assay is useful for quantifying immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Cross-comparisons of reagents for this technique from different suppliers have already been p...

    Authors: Mathieu Surenaud, Céline Manier, Laura Richert, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Yves Levy, Sophie Hue and Christine Lacabaratz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:44

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I family of genes encode for molecules that have well-conserved structures, but have evolved to perform diverse functions. The availability of the gray, short-t...

    Authors: Katina V. Krasnec, Anthony T. Papenfuss and Robert D. Miller

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:43

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The small intestine is a specialized compartment were close interactions take place between host, microbes, food antigens and dietary fatty acids. Dietary fats get absorbed by epithelial cells and processed in...

    Authors: Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Aletta D. Kraneveld, Lieke Rutten, Johan Garssen, Arjan P. Vos and Anita Hartog

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Although histone methyltransferases EZH2 has been proved to have significant regulatory effect on the immune rejection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, its role in solid-organ transplantation rem...

    Authors: Long Li, Yi Zhang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Jina Wang and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:41

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a heterogeneous population of CD4+ helper T cells that promotes pathogenic immune responses in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the status of differe...

    Authors: Deying Liu, Jinxiang Liu, Jinghua Wang, Congcong Liu, Sirui Yang and Yanfang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:40

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8+ T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltr...

    Authors: Andrew J. Highton, Adam Girardin, Georgia M. Bell, Sarah M. Hook and Roslyn A. Kemp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:39

    Content type: Research article

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  41. High-throughput sequencing of T cell receptor (TCR) genes is a powerful tool for analyses of antigen specificity, clonality and diversity of T lymphocytes. Here, we developed a new TCR repertoire analysis meth...

    Authors: Kazutaka Kitaura, Tadasu Shini, Takaji Matsutani and Ryuji Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin c...

    Authors: Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:37

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Bladder cancer, cystitis and bladder polyp are the most common urinary system diseases all over the world. Our former research results show that IL-17A and IL-17 F contribute to the pathogenesis of benign pros...

    Authors: Yanbo Liu, Wanguo Yang, Lijing Zhao, Zuowen Liang, Weigao Shen, Qinlong Hou, Zhenjiang Wang, Jing Jiang and Sun Ying

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with ESRD. Donor CMV seropositivity is associated with higher graft loss. Dendritic cells, macrophages and Th17 lymp...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Imad Lahdou, Gerhard Opelz, Arianeb Mehrabi, Martin Zeier, Paul Schnitzler and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Although Hizentra is indicated for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, phase III trials have focused on patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In th...

    Authors: J. F. Viallard, P. Agape, V. Barlogis, G. Cozon, C. Faure, F. Fouyssac, C. Gaud, M. P. Gourin, M. Hamidou, C. Hoarau, F. Husseini, M. Ojeda-Uribe, M. Pavic, I. Pellier, A. Perlat, N. Schleinitz…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:34

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Despite recent advances in early detection and improvements in chemotherapy for colon cancer, the patients still face poor prognosis of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, the median survival for patients...

    Authors: Huanyu Ju, Wenjing Xing, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Zheng, Xiuzhi Jia, Benning Zhang and Huan Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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