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  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that the Angptl2 pathway mediated hepatic inflammatory response plays an important role in...

    Authors: Zengsheng Lu, Beihui He, Zhiyun Chen, Maoxiang Yan and Liyan Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. HLA class II tetramers can be used for ex vivo enumeration and phenotypic characterisation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. They are increasingly applied in settings like allergy, vaccination and autoimmune d...

    Authors: Christina Gerstner, Sara Turcinov, Aase H. Hensvold, Karine Chemin, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Tamara H. Ramwadhdoebe, Anatoly Dubnovitsky, Genadiy Kozhukh, Lars Rönnblom, William W. Kwok, Adnane Achour, Anca I. Catrina, Lisa G. M. van Baarsen and Vivianne Malmström

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Understanding pathogenic mechanisms is imperative for developing novel treatment to the tuberculosis, an important public health burden worldwide. Recent studies demonstrated that host cholesterol levels have ...

    Authors: Jinrui Xu, Yanbing Zhou, Yi Yang, Cuiping Lv, Xiaoming Liu and Yujiong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  4. It is widely hoped that personal cancer vaccines will extend the number of patients benefiting from checkpoint and other immunotherapies. However, it is clear creating such vaccines will be challenging. It req...

    Authors: Milene Peterson, Sierra Nicole Murphy, John Lainson, Jian Zhang, Luhui Shen, Chris W. Diehnelt and Stephen Albert Johnston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Often, patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), which are marked by the absence or loss of functional antibodies, require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy administe...

    Authors: Lisa M. Meckley, Yanyu Wu, Diane Ito, Todd Berner, Barbara McCoy and Leman Yel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  6. CD8+CD28 T suppressor (Ts) cells play critical role in transplant tolerance. Our previous study has generated CD8+CD28 Ts cells in vitro which exert robust allospecific suppressive capacity in vitro.

    Authors: Guihuan Liu, Yuming Yu, Fu Feng, Ping Zhu, Hua Zhang, Danni Zhang, Xiaoqiang Feng, Zedan Zhang and Yanjun Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Cancer cells subvert natural immunosuppression by upregulating the expression of checkpoint proteins and their ligands. For example, tumor cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) induce immune cell ...

    Authors: Isabella McGoverne, Jenny Dunn, Jacob Batham, Wen Juan Tu, Jeremy Chrisp and Sudha Rao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:22

    Content type: Review

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  8. CD72, a co-receptor of B cell receptor (BCR), has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on B cell functions in several immunological diseases. The B cell plays an important role in the patho...

    Authors: Yuqi Shen, Yuhua Ma, Jingyuan Xie, Li Lin, Yifan Shi, Xiao Li, Pingyan Shen, Xiaoxia Pan and Hong Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous lipid mediator of inflammation. Its production is regulated by the rate-limiting upstream enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We have recently demonstrated that the major cel...

    Authors: Whajung Cho and Jongseon Choe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Miscellaneous memory cell populations that exist before organ transplantation are crucial barriers to transplantation. In the present study, we used a skin-primed heart transplantation model in mouse to evalua...

    Authors: Maoshu Zhu, Yunhan Ma, Kai Tan, Liyi Zhang, Zhaowei Wang, Yongsheng Li, Yingyu Chen, Junjun Guo, Guoliang Yan and Zhongquan Qi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The use of immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of advanced cancer is rapidly increasing. Most immunotherapies rely on induction of CD8+ tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells that are capable of directly kill...

    Authors: Samantha S. Beauford, Anita Kumari and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Although immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the foremost primary glomerular disease, treatment of IgAN is still in infancy. Non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed for IgAN diagnosis. We investi...

    Authors: Na Guo, Qin Zhou, Xiang Huang, Jianwen Yu, Qianqian Han, Baoting Nong, Yuanyan Xiong, Peifen Liang, Jiajia Li, Min Feng, Jun Lv and Qiongqiong Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are a commonly used sample type for a variety of immunological assays. Many factors can affect the quality of PBMCs, and careful consideration and...

    Authors: Han Chen, Christian M. Schürch, Kevin Noble, Kenneth Kim, Peter O. Krutzik, Erika O’Donnell, Jason Vander Tuig, Garry P. Nolan and David R. McIlwain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. The use of anti-B cell based therapies in immune-mediated diseases targeting general B cell markers or molecules important for B cell function has increased the clinical needs of monitoring B cell subpopulations.

    Authors: Susanne Axelsson, Anders Magnuson, Anna Lange, Aseel Alshamari, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist and Olof Hultgren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Hypoxia is a potent molecular signal for cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and migration. Conditions of low oxygen tension trigger regulatory cascades mediated via the highly conserved HIF-1 α post-tra...

    Authors: Shannon P Hilchey, Mukta G Palshikar, Jason A Emo, Dongmei Li, Jessica Garigen, Jiong Wang, Eric S Mendelson, Valentina Cipolla, Juilee Thakar and Martin S Zand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:13

    Content type: Research Article

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  16. CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic vaccine that uses as antigen a variant of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mixed with the bacterially-derived adjuvant VSSP. CIGB-247 has been already evaluated ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Yenima Martín Bauta, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana Victoria de la Torre Santos, Mariela Pérez de la Iglesia, Lian Trimiño Lorenzo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Inflammation appears to be an important component of concussion pathophysiology. However, its relationship to symptom burden is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship be...

    Authors: Alex P. Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Shawn G. Rhind, Doug Richards and Michael G. Hutchison

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) are two major competing treatment strategies for acquired aplastic anemia (AA). Whether allo-HSCT is superior ...

    Authors: Yangmin Zhu, Qingyan Gao, Jing Hu, Xu Liu, Dongrui Guan and Fengkui Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. B7-H6 has been revealed as an endogenous immunoligand expressed in a variety of tumors, but not expressed in healthy tissues. Heretofore, no studies have been reported describing B7-H6 in women with cervical c...

    Authors: Gloria Yareli Gutierrez-Silerio, Ramon Antonio Franco-Topete, Jesse Haramati, Eduardo Miguel Navarrete-Medina, Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Blanca Estela Bastidas-Ramirez, Martha Eloisa Ramos-Marquez and Susana del Toro-Arreola

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) present a significant obstacle to cancer immunotherapy because they dampen anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Previous groups, including our own, have reported on t...

    Authors: Andrea J. Luker, Laura J. Graham, Timothy M. Smith Jr, Carmen Camarena, Matt P. Zellner, Jamie-Jean S. Gilmer, Sheela R. Damle, Daniel H. Conrad, Harry D. Bear and Rebecca K. Martin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Clonorchis sinensis infection could trigger strong immune responses in mice and humans. However, whether the C.sinensis infection has an impact on arthritis is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of C.sinens...

    Authors: Xiangyang Li, Ying Yang, Suping Qin, Fanyun Kong, Chao Yan, Wanpeng Cheng, Wei Pan, Qian Yu, Hui Hua, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. There is a growing body of evidences indicating iNOS has involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. However, the role of iNOS in SLE is inconsistency. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the association ...

    Authors: Lu Pan, Sirui Yang, Jinghua Wang, Meng Xu, Shaofeng Wang and Huanfa Yi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and is caused by the Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis is often difficult becaus...

    Authors: Kei Amemiya, Jennifer L. Dankmeyer, Jeremy J. Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Spencer W. Stonier, Carl Soffler, Christopher K. Cote, Susan L. Welkos, David P. Fetterer, Taylor B. Chance, Sylvia R. Trevino, Patricia L. Worsham and David M. Waag

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool that is particularly well-suited to measure mRNA levels in clinical samples, especially those with relatively low cell counts. However, a caveat of this approach is t...

    Authors: Justin G. Roy, Janet E. McElhaney and Chris P. Verschoor

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Vascular calcification is often associated with chronic inflammation and is a risk factor for brain arterial stiffness. Our previous results showed that miR32-5p was positively correlated with vascular smooth ...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Ling Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Yingying Shen, Yan Gao, Qian Chen, Xuyu Zu and Jianghua Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Cold stress, which may lead to local and systemic injury, is reported to be related to the immune system, especially the complement system. At present, the lack of effective treatment is a critical issue. Amen...

    Authors: Jiayi Cai, Chunyang Zhao, Yajie Du, Yuan Huang and Qingchun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Yersinia pestis, the etiological pathogen of plague, is capable of repressing the immune response of white blood cells to evade phagocytosis. The V-antigen (LcrV) was found to be involved in this process by bindi...

    Authors: Tiandi Wei, Jing Gong, Guojing Qu, Mingyu Wang and Hai Xu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Expansion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in hypercholesterolaemic mice protects against atherosclerosis while different ILC2 subsets have been described (natural, inflammatory) based on their suppress...

    Authors: Polyxeni T. Mantani, Pontus Dunér, Irena Ljungcrantz, Jan Nilsson, Harry Björkbacka and Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most complex complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current standard of grading system is based on clinical symptoms in skin, liver and intesti...

    Authors: Ping Zhang, Shujun Yang, Yujing Zou, Xiao Yan, Hao Wu, Miao Zhou, Yong Cheng Sun, Yi Zhang, Huiling Zhu, Kaihong Xu, Yi Wang, Li Xia Sheng, Qitian Mu, Liguang Sun and Guifang Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Ethiopia initiated antiretroviral therapy early in 2005. Managing and detecting antiretroviral treatment response is important to monitor the effectiveness of medication and possible drug switching for low imm...

    Authors: Hadush Negash, Haftom Legese, Mebrahtu Tefera, Fitsum Mardu, Kebede Tesfay, Senait Gebresilasie, Berhane Fseha, Tsega Kahsay, Aderajew Gebrewahd and Brhane Berhe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  31. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and more recently, subcutaneously-delivered Ig (SCIg), are used to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases; however, there are challenges associated with product pro...

    Authors: Bonnie J. B. Lewis, Jade Ville, Megan Blacquiere, Selena Cen, Rolf Spirig, Adrian W. Zuercher, Fabian Käsermann and Donald R. Branch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Mutant peptides presented by cancer cells are superior vaccine candidates than self peptides. The efficacy of mutant K-Ras, P53 and EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) peptides have been tested as cancer v...

    Authors: Deng Pan, Dapeng Zhou, Weijing Cai, Weibo Wu, Wen Ling Tan, Caicun Zhou and Yanyan Lou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:43

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Myeloid cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, which include monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), play vital roles in innate immunity, and in the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity....

    Authors: Hong Liu, Suryasarathi Dasgupta, Yu Fu, Brandi Bailey, Christian Roy, Eric Lightcap and Benjamin Faustin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. While the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is routinely used in Canada and some other countries to prevent pneumococcal infection in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients deve...

    Authors: Gabrielle Nicole Gaultier, William McCready and Marina Ulanova

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:41

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key component of innate immunity. Low serum MBL levels, related to promoter polymorphism and structural variants, have been associated with an increased risk of infection. The...

    Authors: M. Puente, C. Fariñas-Alvarez, A. Moreto, P. Sánchez-Velasco, J. G. Ocejo-Vinyals and M. C. Fariñas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:40

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Induction therapy of multiple myeloma patients prior to autologous stem cell transplantation has changed from conventional chemotherapy to treatment based on proteasome inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs. We...

    Authors: Ida Marie Rundgren, Elisabeth Ersvær, Aymen Bushra Ahmed, Anita Ryningen and Øystein Bruserud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:39

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Helios has been reported to stabilize regulatory T (Treg) suppressive function. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression in three human monocyte subsets modulates immune responses. Recently, our team ...

    Authors: Lifeng Liu, Qiuyue Zhang, Peng Chen, Na Guo, Aixin Song, Xiaojie Huang, Wei Xia, Li Li, Christiane Moog, Hao Wu, Bin Su and Tong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus that presents a high risk of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we used CIBERSORT and gene set enrichment analysis (GSE...

    Authors: Yiling Cao, Weihao Tang and Wanxin Tang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:37

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. A previous study demonstrated pleural fluid (PF) IgA immunodominance for the fused MT10.3:MPT64 protein in pleural tuberculosis (PLTB) cases. However, no clue on the role of IgA and IgG against this and other ...

    Authors: Renan Jeremias da Silva, Raquel da Silva Corrêa, Isabela Gama Sardella, Ana Carla de Paulo Mulinari, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Ana Paula Santos, Rogério Rufino, Luciana Silva Rodrigues and Maria Helena Féres Saad

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. HIV-infected individuals with latent TB infection are at increased risk of developing active TB. HAART greatly reduces the incidence rate of TB in HIV-infected patients and reconstitutes Mycobacterium tuberculosi...

    Authors: Girmay Desalegn, Aster Tsegaye, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Abraham Aseffa and Rawleigh Howe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Resident macrophages (Mø) originating from yolk sac Mø and/or foetal monocytes colonise tissues/organs during embryonic development. They persist into adulthood by self-renewal at a steady state, independent o...

    Authors: Kazushige Ogawa, Mayu Tsurutani, Aya Hashimoto and Miharu Soeda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:34

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  42. Cytokines, chemokines, adipocytokines, soluble cell receptors, and immune activation markers play an important role in immune responsiveness and can provide prognostic value since they reflect underlying condi...

    Authors: Najib Aziz, Roger Detels, Joshua J. Quint, David Gjertson, Timothy Ryner and Anthony W. Butch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:33

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. The development of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with the balance of Th17 and Treg cells. IL-2 and rapamycin can influence the populations of both Th17 and Treg cells. However, it is u...

    Authors: Chunmiao Zhao, Yanfang Chu, Zhaoyun Liang, Bingying Zhang, Xuxia Wang, Xiaona Jing, Meihua Hao, Yiqi Wang, Jia An, Xingzhe Zhang, Liguang Sun and Junwei Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. The immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected individuals substantially affects patients’ prognosis. However, the dynamic characteristics and pre...

    Authors: Chong-Xi Li, Yu-Ye Li, Li-Ping He, Jing Kou, Jin-Song Bai, Jun Liu, Bo Tian, Li-Juan Cao, Kun-Hua Wang and Yi-Qun Kuang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. The persistent the inflammatory condition in multiple sclerosis (MS) may due to the aberrant regulation of the elimination of the pathogenic autoreactive lymphocytes through apoptosis. Survivin, encoded by the...

    Authors: Dariush Rahban, Forogh Mohammadi, Mehdi Alidadi, Taha Ghantabpour, Pedram Abbasi Ghasem Kheyli and Majid Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:30

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or Ig...

    Authors: Antony R. Parker, Markus Skold, Stephen Harding, J. Clayborn Barton, Luigi F. Bertoli and James C. Barton

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:29

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Immune inhibitory receptors play an important role in chronic infections. However, little is known about their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Here, we analyzed the relationship between programmed d...

    Authors: Yuejiao Dong, Xuefen Li, Lu Zhang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Chunlei Chen, Jiaqi Bao and Yu Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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