The Th2 cytokine production bias in the pleural cavity lavage was not significantly altered in the MyD88-deficient F. hepatica -infected mice. Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) were collected from the C57BL/6 mice and were treated with media alone, anti-CD3, or F. hepatica antigen (FhAg) for 72 h. The levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 in the supernate were measured indirectly via ELISA. Statistical significances were determined via one-way ANOVA followed by a Kruskal-Wallis test. * p < 0.05 and ** p < 0.01. Five mice were tested per group. Results are compiled from three independent experiments.