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  1. Content type: Research article

    The involvement of inflammasome activation and macrophage polarization during the process of syphilis infection remains unknown. In this study, A series of experiments were performed using human macrophages to...

    Authors: Li-Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Yu-Yan Chen, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Yao Xiao, Wen-Dong Li, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Li-Li Liu, Zan-Xi Fang, Jian-Jun Niu, Yong Lin…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:28

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The natural killer cell line, NK-92MI, is cytotoxic against various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) NK-92MI cells targeting carcinoembryonic antig...

    Authors: Masayuki Shiozawa, Chuan-Hsin Chang, Yi-Chun Huang, Yi-Ching Chen, Mau-Shin Chi, Hsu-Chao Hao, Yue-Cune Chang, Satoru Takeda, Kwan-Hwa Chi and Yu-Shan Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:27

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Agonists of TLR3 and TLR4 are effective immunoadjuvants for different types of vaccines. The mechanisms of their immunostimulatory action differ significantly; these differences are particularly critical for i...

    Authors: Ekaterina Lebedeva, Alexander Bagaev, Alexey Pichugin, Marina Chulkina, Andrei Lysenko, Irina Tutykhina, Maxim Shmarov, Denis Logunov, Boris Naroditsky and Ravshan Ataullakhanov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:26

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  4. Content type: Research article

    While vaccination remains the most effective method to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 5–10% of recipients exhibit non-responsiveness to the HB vaccine. Immunological analysis of strong, weak or abs...

    Authors: Xiaojia Xu, Yulian Li, Yaping Liang, Mingjuan Yin, Zuwei Yu, Yan Zhang, Lingfeng Huang and Jindong Ni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:25

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages are tissue resident immune cells important for host defence and homeostasis. During diabetes, macrophages and other innate immune cells are known to have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is beli...

    Authors: Sofia Pavlou, Jaime Lindsay, Rebecca Ingram, Heping Xu and Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:24

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  6. Content type: Research article

    In many clinical cases of extensive liver resection (e.g. due to malignancy), the residual portion is too small to maintain the body homeostasis. The resulting acute liver failure is associated with the compen...

    Authors: Andrey V. Elchaninov, Timur Kh. Fatkhudinov, Natalia Y. Usman, Evgeniya Y. Kananykhina, Irina V. Arutyunyan, Andrey V. Makarov, Anastasia V. Lokhonina, Irina Z. Eremina, Viktor V. Surovtsev, Dmitry V. Goldshtein, Galina B. Bolshakova, Valeria V. Glinkina and Gennady T. Sukhikh

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:23

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Deficits in disorders of humoral immunity associated with a deficit of antibodies are the most common primary immunodeficiency. Total IgG and IgG subclasses measurements are used to diagnose, differentiate and...

    Authors: Gerard Pasternak, Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska and Katarzyna Pentoś

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:22

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 9 (KCTD9), a member of KCTD family with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain, was found to be increased particularly in NK cells of patients with HBV-induce...

    Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Lin Zhu, Yaoyong Zhou, Aichao Shi, Hongwu Wang, Meifang Han, Xiaoyang Wan, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Xiaoping Luo, Tao Chen and Qin Ning

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:20

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4+ T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) presentation of Mtb antigens (Ags). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most p...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Aihong Xia, Xin Li, Zhaocheng Zhu, Yechi Shen, Shanshan Jin, Tian Lan, Yuqing Xie, Han Wu, Chuang Meng, Lin Sun, Yuelan Yin, Xiang Chen and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:19

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the crit...

    Authors: Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan and Yong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:18

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Fra-1 (fosl1) belongs to the activator protein1 (AP-1) family inducing IL-11 expression in oxidative stress condition. IL-11 plays a pivotal role in protecting epithelial barriers integrity. In this study, we inv...

    Authors: Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba Shohan, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Nader Bagheri, Amin Soltani, Fatemeh Deris, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani and Ehsan Razmara

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:17

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  12. Content type: Review

    Cancer immunoprevention is based on the fact that a functioning immune system controls tumor onset and development in humans and animals, thus leading to the idea that the enhancement of immune responses in he...

    Authors: Arianna Palladini, Lorena Landuzzi, Pier-Luigi Lollini and Patrizia Nanni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:16

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Although a safe and effective yellow fever vaccine was developed more than 80 years ago, several issues regarding its use remain unclear. For example, what is the minimum dose that can provide immunity against...

    Authors: Carla R. B. Bonin, Guilherme C. Fernandes, Rodrigo W. dos Santos and Marcelo Lobosco

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:15

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont is a biotechnology product for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vaccine induces a neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response, against the normal circula...

    Authors: Puyuan Xing, Hongyu Wang, Sheng Yang, Xiaohong Han, Yan Sun and Yuankai Shi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:14

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Tumor-Associated Neutrophils (TANs) may be able to induce lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis, although the detailed roles of TANs remain unclear. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an inflammation-based ...

    Authors: Soichiro Hiramatsu, Hiroaki Tanaka, Junya Nishimura, Chie Sakimura, Tatsuro Tamura, Takahiro Toyokawa, Kazuya Muguruma, Masakazu Yashiro, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:13

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be an autoimmune disease driven by anti-islet antigen responses and mediated by T-cells. Recent published data suggests that T-cell reactivity to modified peptides, effectiv...

    Authors: John Sidney, Jose Luis Vela, Dave Friedrich, Ravi Kolla, Matthias von Herrath, Johnna D. Wesley and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:12

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current...

    Authors: Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang and Wentao Yue

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:10

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The potency of T regulatory (TREG) cells to inhibit T helper (Th)-driven immune cell responses has been linked to increased intracellular cyclic-AMP (cAMP) levels of TREG cells. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven al...

    Authors: Kari J. Dugger, Taylor Chrisman, Sarah L. Sayner, Parker Chastain, Kacie Watson and Robert Estes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:9

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk betwe...

    Authors: Tammy Oth, Thomas H. P. M. Habets, Wilfred T. V. Germeraad, Marijke I. Zonneveld, Gerard M. J. Bos and Joris Vanderlocht

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:8

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  20. Content type: Research article

    As a factor contributing to the tumor cell drug resistance, tumor microenvironment (TME) is being paid increasingly attention. However, the drug resistance of malignantly transformed cells in TME has rarely be...

    Authors: Xifeng Fei, Anqi Wang, Delin Wang, Xan Meng, Jiawei Ma, Lei Hong, Ruwei Qin, Aidong Wang, Jun Dong, Qiang Huang and Zhimin Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:7

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The need for rapid and accurate comparison of panels of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and subsequent rational down selection, presents several challenges for modern vaccine development. Here we describe a me...

    Authors: Sumera Y. Younis, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Simon Heuking, Vinod Sommandas, Livia Brunner, Nicole vd.Werff, Patrice Dubois, Martin Friede, Clemens Kocken, Nicolas Collin and Ed Remarque

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:6

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  22. Content type: Research Article

    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been widely used in children to prevent invasive Hib disease because of its strong immunogenicity and antibody response induction relative to the caps...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yun Liao, Yongrong Wang, Shengjie Ouyang, Yanchun Che, Miao Xu, Jing Pu, Qi Shen, Zhanlong He, Qiang Ye and Qihan Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:4

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with...

    Authors: Melanie Lohrberg, Reinhard Pabst and Jörg Wilting

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:5

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are believed to play an important role in growth, progression, and metastasis ...

    Authors: Jurgita Jackute, Marius Zemaitis, Darius Pranys, Brigita Sitkauskiene, Skaidrius Miliauskas, Simona Vaitkiene and Raimundas Sakalauskas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:3

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in respo...

    Authors: Hamid Beiki, Abbas Pakdel, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad and James M. Reecy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:2

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric complication of HIV/AIDS. While considerable research has been undertaken to understand the psychosocial risk factors of MDD, there is a paucity of data ...

    Authors: Kenneth Musinguzi, Andrew Obuku, Noeline Nakasujja, Harriet Birabwa, Juliet Nakku, Jonathan Levin and Eugene Kinyanda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:1

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Chemokines and their cognate receptors play important role in the control of leukocyte chemotaxis, HIV entry and other inflammatory diseases. Developing an effcient method to investigate the functional express...

    Authors: Baosheng Ge, Jiqiang Li, Zhijin Wei, Tingting Sun, Yanzhuo Song and Naseer Ullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:54

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Some patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) also have positivity of rheumatoid factor (RF). However, the clinical significance of this occurrence remains unknown i...

    Authors: Shinji Watanabe, Takahisa Gono, Kumiko Nishina, Naohiro Sugitani, Eri Watanabe, Hiroki Yabe and Chihiro Terai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:53

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence ...

    Authors: Louisa Kühne, Bettina Jung, Helen Poth, Antonia Schuster, Simone Wurm, Petra Ruemmele, Bernhard Banas and Tobias Bergler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:52

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  30. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1...

    Authors: Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi and Xiuli Ju

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:51

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to contr...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, Vânia Maphossa, Ivalda Macicame, Nilesh Bhatt, Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, Ilesh Jani and Luc Kestens

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:50

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  32. Content type: Research article

    It is well known that ABO blood group system incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an effective strategy for end-stage renal disease. The main barrier for ABOi-KT is how to keep host B cell activati...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Luogen Liu, Yunsheng Zhang, Jianhua Xiao and Yi Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:49

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  33. Content type: Research article

    To investigate natural killer (NK) cell activity, circulating cytokine level and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production status in critically ill patients.

    Authors: Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Kim, Hana Jeong, Jey Sook Chae, Young Sam Kim, Jae Gil Lee, Younsoo Cho and Jong Ho Lee

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:48

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  34. Content type: Research Article

    Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to ...

    Authors: Wensheng Chen, Darrell Pilling and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:47

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pat...

    Authors: Unni Gopinathan, Reidun Øvstebø, Berit Sletbakk Brusletto, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Peter Kierulf, Petter Brandtzaeg and Jens Petter Berg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:46

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an imm...

    Authors: Shireen Nigar, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Takuma Okajima, Suguru Shigemori, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita and Takeshi Shimosato

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:44

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  37. Content type: Methodology article

    Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especial...

    Authors: Akane Tanaka, Joyce To, Bronwyn O’Brien, Sheila Donnelly and Maria Lund

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:43

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is t...

    Authors: Manoochehr Karami, Pegah Ameri, Jalal Bathaei, Zeinab Berangi, Tahereh Pashaei, Ali Zahiri, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Hussein Erfani and Koen Ponnet

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:42

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2017 18:45

  39. Content type: Research article

    We previously reported that JAK–STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitini...

    Authors: Keigo Ikeda, Kunihiro Hayakawa, Maki Fujishiro, Mikiko Kawasaki, Takuya Hirai, Hiroshi Tsushima, Tomoko Miyashita, Satoshi Suzuki, Shinji Morimoto, Naoto Tamura, Kenji Takamori, Hideoki Ogawa and Iwao Sekigawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:41

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced...

    Authors: Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu and Ming Q. Wei

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:40

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  41. Content type: Research article

    CIGB-247, a VSSP-adjuvanted VEGF-based vaccine, was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (CENTAURO). Vaccination with the maximum dose of antigen showed an excellent saf...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana de la Torre Santos, Eduardo Rafael Santiesteban Álvarez, Yenima Martín Bauta, Cimara H. Bermúdez Badell, Josué de la Torre Pupo, Jorge V. Gavilondo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:39

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) was reported as an active participant in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This study aimed to investigate the major source ofIL-9 and its effect on interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobu...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Ying Wang, Jiangping Li, Sha Li, Yannan Zhang, Juan Shen, Weiping Tan and Changyou Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:38

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling ...

    Authors: Joseph A. Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M. Stemmer and Allen Rosenspire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:37

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activatio...

    Authors: Wenjun Mou, Wei Han, Xiaoli Ma, Xiaolin Wang, Hong Qin, Wen Zhao, Xiaoya Ren, Xi Chen, Wei Yang, Haiyan Cheng, Xisi Wang, Hui Zhang, Xin Ni, Huanmin Wang and Jingang Gui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:36

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  45. Content type: Methodology article

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (http://​www.​imgt.​org), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier Uni...

    Authors: Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida and Marie-Paule Lefranc

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:35

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF...

    Authors: Marian-Christopher Pott, Natalie Frede, Jennifer Wanders, Lennart Hammarström, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Cristina Glocker, Fariba Tahami and Bodo Grimbacher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:34

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of...

    Authors: Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen and Dawei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:33

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