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  1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune system disease with a high disability rate threatening the living quality of patients. Identifying potential biomarkers for RA is of necessity to improve the preve...

    Authors: Linxiao Ma, Huijie Liu, Ping Shao and Qian Lv
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:36
  2. For the past three years, the pandemic has had a major effect on global public health, mainly on those with underlying medical conditions, such as people living with Multiple Sclerosis. Vaccination among this ...

    Authors: Seyedeh Sadigheh Hamzavi, Rosemina Bahrololoom, Sepideh Saeb, Nahid Heydari Marandi, Marzieh Hosseini, Alimohammad Keshtvarz hesam abadi and Marzieh Jamalidoust
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:35
  3. Previous studies have reported the potential impact of immune cells on kidney stone disease (KSD), but definitive causal relationships have yet to be established. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the ...

    Authors: Dongfeng Yuan, Junyi Yang, Weisong Wu, Yirixiatijiang Amier, Xianmiu Li, Wenlong Wan, Yisheng Huang, Jiabo Li and Xiao Yu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:34
  4. Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an inflammatory process involving lymphocyte-mediated immune response and orbital tissue damage. The anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies produced by B ly...

    Authors: Renyan Wang, Delu Song, Yong Zhong and Hui Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:31
  5. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Though patients with IMNM were not considered to show skin rash, several reports have showed atypical skin conditions i...

    Authors: Takashi Kurashige, Rie Nakamura, Tomomi Murao, Naoko Mine, Mayu Sato, Riho Katsumata, Yuhei Kanaya, Yoriko Dodo, Tomohito Sugiura and Tomohiko Ohshita
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:30
  6. Several PD-1 antibodies approved as anti-cancer therapies work by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1, thus restoring anti-cancer T cell activities. These PD-1 antibodies lack inter-species ...

    Authors: Hae-Mi Kim, Kyoung-Jin Kim, Kwanghyun Lee, Myeong Jin Yoon, Jenny Choih, Tae-Joon Hong, Eun Ji Cho, Hak-Jun Jung, Jayoung Kim, Ji Soo Park, Hye Young Na, Yong-Seok Heo, Chae Gyu Park, Heungrok Park, Sungho Han and Donggoo Bae
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:29
  7. Metronomic capecitabine used as an adjuvant therapy improves survival in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). This therapeutic approach may also contribute to improving immu...

    Authors: Qianyong He, Xiuling Luo, Lina Liu, Chaofen Zhao, Zhuoling Li and Feng Jin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:28
  8. Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is a type of schizophrenia (SCZ) with an age of onset of < 18 years. An abnormal inflammatory immune system may be involved in the occurrence and development of SCZ. We aimed to...

    Authors: Zi Chen, Yuxue Li, Yao Gao, Xiaoxuan Fan, Xinzhe Du, Xinrong Li, Zhifen Liu, Sha Liu and Xiaohua Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:26
  9. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females. The immune system has a crucial role in the fight against cancer. B and T cells, the two main components of the adaptive immunity, are critical players that ...

    Authors: Atefeh Azizi, Fereshteh Mehdipour, Morteza Samadi, Reza Rasolmali, Abdol-Rasoul Talei and Abbas Ghaderi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:25
  10. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination has off-target protective effects against infections unrelated to tuberculosis. Among these, murine and human studies suggest that BCG vaccination may protect against...

    Authors: NL Messina, M Wang, EK Forbes, B Freyne, WP Hasang, S Germano, R Bonnici, F Summons, K Gardiner, S Donath, R Gordon, SJ Rogerson and N Curtis
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:24
  11. Flow cytometry-based basophil activation tests (BAT) have been performed with various modifications, differing in the use of distinct identification and activation markers. Established tests use liquid reagent...

    Authors: Sebastian Waldherr, Miriam Hils, Martin Köberle, Knut Brockow, Ulf Darsow, Simon Blank, Tilo Biedermann and Bernadette Eberlein
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:23
  12. Immune cells and cytokines have been linked to viremia dynamic and immune status during HIV infection. They may serve as useful biomarkers in the monitoring of people living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1). The present w...

    Authors: Yaou Pierrot Assogba, Adefounke Prudencia Adechina, Edmond Tchiakpe, Odilon Paterne Nouatin, René K. Kèkè, Moussa Bachabi, Honoré Sourou Bankole and Akadiri Yessoufou
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:22
  13. Helminth-derived proteins have immunomodulatory properties, influencing the host’s immune response as an adaptive strategy for helminth survival. Helminth-derived proteins modulate the immune response by induc...

    Authors: Maimonah Alghanmi, Faisal Minshawi, Tarfa A. Altorki, Ayat Zawawi, Isra Alsaady, Abdallah Y Naser, Hassan Alwafi, Soa’ad M. Alsulami, Ala A. Azhari, Anwar M Hashem and Rowa Alhabbab
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:21
  14. The human interleukin-17 (IL-17) family comprises IL-17A to IL-17 F; their receptors are IL-17RA to IL-17RE. Evidence revealed that these cytokines can have a tumor-supportive or anti-tumor impact on human mal...

    Authors: Ali Moadab, Mohammad Rafie Valizadeh, Alireza Nazari and Hossein Khorramdelazad
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:20
  15. Here, the perspective of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency receiving subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) via introductory smaller size pre-filled syringes (PFS) or vials were compared.

    Authors: R. Mallick, G. Solomon, P. Bassett, X. Zhang, P. Patel and O. Lepeshkina
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:18
  16. Itch sensitization has been reported in patients with chronic allergic skin diseases and observed in a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There is evidence suggesting that neuroimmune interactio...

    Authors: Tichakorn Singto, Viviane Filor, Jonathan Vidak, Robert Klopfleisch and Wolfgang Bäumer
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:17
  17. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of artemisinin in treating primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) based on network pharmacology and experimental validation.

    Authors: Jia-he Liao, Qian He, Zi-wei Huang, Xin-bo Yu, Jian-ying Yang, Yan Zhang, Wei-jiang Song, Jing Luo and Qing-wen Tao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:16
  18. We aimed to investigate the immune characteristics of intestinal CD8+ gamma delta T (CD8+ γδ T) cells in Crohn’s disease (CD) and their correlation with disease activity.

    Authors: Tao Zhu, Linlin Zhu, Caixia Sheng, Danju Wu, Qianru Gu, Zhinong Jiang, Jiaqi Xu, Guoxiang Fu and Yujie Jiang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:15
  19. Haemoglobin (Hb) variants such as sickle cell trait (SCT/HbAS) play a role in protecting against clinical malaria, but little is known about the development of immune responses against malaria parasite (Plasmodiu...

    Authors: Kwame Kumi Asare, Benjamin Agrah, Fiifi Solomon Ofori-Acquah, William Kudzi, Nii Ayite Aryee and Linda Eva Amoah
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:14
  20. The reconstruction of clonal families (CFs) in B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire analysis is a crucial step to understand the adaptive immune system and how it responds to antigens. The BCR repertoire of an ind...

    Authors: Daria Balashova, Barbera D. C. van Schaik, Maria Stratigopoulou, Jeroen E. J. Guikema, Tom G. Caniels, Mathieu Claireaux, Marit J. van Gils, Anne Musters, Dornatien C. Anang, Niek de Vries, Victor Greiff and Antoine H. C. van Kampen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:13
  21. Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori), is an established causative factor for the development of gastric cancer and the induction of persistent stomach infections that may lead to peptic ulcers. In recent decades, s...

    Authors: Arezo Kaveh-Samani, Samaneh Dalali, Fatemeh Kaviani, Tohid Piri-Gharaghie and Abbas Doosti
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:11
  22. More than 90% of patients with diabetes worldwide are type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is caused by insulin resistance or impaired producing insulin by pancreatic β cells. T2D and its complications, mainly large c...

    Authors: YongHui Yin, YingLi Sheng, Shuo Gao, JinTao Zhang, WenKuan Wang, YingJun Liu, TingTing Xu and Yi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:10
  23. Intra-ductal cancer (IDC) is the most common type of breast cancer, with intra-lobular cancer (ILC) coming in second. Surgery is the primary treatment for early stage breast cancer. There are now irrefutable d...

    Authors: Hassan A. Saad, Azza Baz, Mohamed Riad, Mohamed E. Eraky, Ahmed El-Taher, Mohamed I. Farid, Khaled Sharaf, Huda E. M. Said and Lotfy A. Ibrahim
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:9
  24. The objective of this study was to identify potential predictors of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy among serum indexes, case data, and li...

    Authors: Jingting Wang, Yan Ma, Haishan Lin, Jing Wang and Bangwei Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:8
  25. Biomarkers that can predict outcome will improve the efficacy of treatment for HNSCC patients. In this regard, we retrospectively evaluated the prognostic effect of PD1, PD-L1, and CD45RO in tongue and larynx ...

    Authors: Simin Ahmadvand, Lotf-Ali Norouzi, Yousef Mohammadi, Akbar Safaei, Bijan Khademi, Maziar Motiee-Langroudi and Abbas Ghaderi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:7
  26. The ability of generating effective humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been clarified in lymphoma patients. The study aimed to investigate the antibody (Ab) production after SARS-Cov-2 in...

    Authors: Huan Xie, Jing Zhang, Ran Luo, Yan Qi, Yizhang Lin, Changhao Han, Xi Li and Dongfeng Zeng
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:5
  27. Immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, neutrophils and T cell subsets, have been implicated in the context of obesity. However, the specific role of Th2 cells in adipose tissue function has remained elusi...

    Authors: Lijun Dong, Jingtao Gao, Lu Yu, Shibo Liu, Yuxin Zhao, Wen Zhang, Yinming Liang and Hui Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:4
  28. Lung cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), can bring long-term survival benefits to patients, but also can bring immune-related adverse events (irAE...

    Authors: Kailian Hou, Weipeng Ye, Qunfeng Huang, Weiyi Li, Zhiqiong Tan, Na tao, Dongheng yang, Haoxin Lin, Zihao Deng, Yuanyuan Xia and Guifang Yu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:3
  29. Despite the functions of TLRs in the parasitic infections have been extensively reported, few studies have addressed the role of TLR3 in the immune response to Schistosoma japonicum infections. The aim of this st...

    Authors: Hongyan Xie, Dianhui Chen, Yuanfa Feng, Feng Mo, Lin Liu, Junmin Xing, Wei Xiao, Yumei Gong, Shanni Tang, Zhengrong Tan, Guikuan Liang, Shan Zhao, Weiguo Yin and Jun Huang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:2
  30. The interaction between the nervous system and the immune system can affect the outcome of a bacterial infection. Staphylococcus aureus skin infection is a common infectious disease, and elucidating the relations...

    Authors: Changyu Huang, Yang Chen, Yuanqing Cai, Haiqi Ding, Jiaoying Hong, Shan You, Yiming Lin, Hongxin Hu, Yongfa Chen, Xueni Hu, Yanshu Chen, Ying Huang, Chaofan Zhang, Yunzhi Lin, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li…
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:55
  31. Authors: Ahmad A. Al Ghamdi, Gamal Badr, Wael N. Hozzein, Ahmed Allam, Noori S. Al-Waili, Mohammed A. Al-Wadaan and Olivier Garraud
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:54
  32. Malignant pleural effusion (MPE), which is a complex microenvironment that contains numerous immune and tumour signals, is common in lung cancer. Gene alterations, such as driver gene mutations, are believed t...

    Authors: Lei-lei Lv, Hong-bin Wang, Yao-xin Zhang, Jia-wei Zhai, Yu Shen, Qiu-Xia Qu and Cheng Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:53
  33. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common immune-mediated condition with its molecular pathogenesis remaining to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the role of FUT2 in human I...

    Authors: Jing Cai, Hao Wu, Chenxing Wang, Yujiao Chen, Dingli Zhang, Shiwei Guan, Beilei Fu, Yingli Jin and Cao Qian
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:51
  34. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to promote T cell migration and increase the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and chemokines. The administration of Xpro-1595, a dominant-negative TN...

    Authors: Kusuma Sai Davuluri, Amit Kumar Singh, Vimal Kumar Yadav, Ajay Vir Singh, Shoor Vir Singh and Devendra Singh Chauhan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:49
  35. Control of Tuberculosis (TB) infection is mainly the result of productive teamwork between T-cell populations and antigen presenting cells (APCs). However, APCs activation at the site of initiating cellular im...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Xin Li, Aihong Xia, Zhifang Zhang, Jiaxu Wan, Yan Gao, Chuang Meng, Xiang Chen and Xin-an Jiao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:48
  36. Liver failure, which is predominantly caused by hepatitis B (HBV) can be improved by an artificial liver support system (ALSS). This study investigated the phenotypic heterogeneity of immunocytes in patients w...

    Authors: Tao Ju, Daixi Jiang, Chengli Zhong, Huafen Zhang, Yandi Huang, Chunxia Zhu, Shigui Yang and Dong Yan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:47
  37. Multi-epitope polypeptide vaccines, a fusion protein, often have a string-of-beads system composed of various specific peptide epitopes, potential adjuvants, and linkers. When choosing the sequence of various ...

    Authors: Niloofar Sadat Tabibpour, Abbas Doosti and Ali Sharifzadeh
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:46
  38. SARS-CoV-2 remains a world-wide health issue. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is induced upon both infection and vaccination. However, defining the long-term immune trajectory, especially after infection, is limi...

    Authors: Astrid Korning Hvidt, Huaijian Guo, Rebecca Andersen, Stine Sofie Frank Lende, Line Khalidan Vibholm, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Marianne Hoegsbjerg Schleimann, Victoria Russell, Angela Man-Wei Cheung, Eustache Paramithiotis, Rikke Olesen and Martin Tolstrup
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:45
  39. Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), but its serious side effects can be life-threatening for PV patients. Tacrolimus (FK506) has been reported to have an adjuvant treatmen...

    Authors: Zhimin Xie, Xiangnong Dai, Qingqing Li, Sifan Lin and Xingdong Ye
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:43
  40. Lymphedema is an intractable disease that can be caused by injury to lymphatic vessels, such as by surgical treatments for cancer. It can lead to impaired joint mobility in the extremities and reduced quality ...

    Authors: Toshihiko Nishioka, Kei-ichi Katayama, Shinji Kumegawa, Kyoichi Isono, Takashi Baba, Hiroshi Tsujimoto, Gen Yamada, Norimitsu Inoue and Shinichi Asamura
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:42

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