Skip to main content


Page 1 of 23

  1. The correlation between primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and autoimmunity shows ethnic and geographical diversity. The aim of our study was to accumulate more data in paediatric PID population.

    Authors: Karolina Pieniawska-Śmiech, Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska, Magdalena Zemelka-Wiacek and Marek Jutel
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:8
  2. Coevolution between pathogens and their hosts decreases host morbidity and mortality. Bats host and can tolerate viruses which can be lethal to other vertebrate orders, including humans. Bat adaptations to inf...

    Authors: Markéta Harazim, Juliette Perrot, Hugo Varet, Hervé Bourhy, Julien Lannoy, Jiri Pikula, Veronika Seidlová, Laurent Dacheux and Natália Martínková
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:7
  3. Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterized for the skewed Th differentiation towards Th1 and Th17 cells as well as the impaired number and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are capable ...

    Authors: Jingjing Cao, Yanxia Zhan, Lili Ji, Pu Chen, Luya Cheng, Feng Li, Xibing Zhuang, Zhihui Min, Lihua Sun, Fanli Hua, Hao Chen, Boting Wu and Yunfeng Cheng
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:6
  4. Aspergillosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. PU.1 is critical for innate immunity against Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanis...

    Authors: Min Wang, Ming Zhang, Jiayong Qiu, Chenyang Liu, Yao Lou, Tongsheng Wang, Yingmin Zhang and Yimin Mao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:4
  5. A major barrier to achieving a favorable outcome of chronic HBV infection is a dysregulated HBV-specific immune response resulting from immunosuppressive features of FOXP3+ T cells. A better definition of FOXP3+ ...

    Authors: Chunhua Wen, Zheyu Dong, Yiyue Wang, Guofu Ye, Yanchen Ma, Xuan Yi, Yang Zhou, Xiaoyi Li, Xinchun Zheng, Jinlin Hou, Yongyin Li and Libo Tang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:3
  6. Patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) have an increased risk of infections which is caused by pathomechanisms of the diseases itself but also as a result of anti-tumor therapy. Especiall...

    Authors: Christoph Lutz, Stefan Feiten, Geothy Chakupurakal, Jochen Heymanns, Jörg Thomalla, Christoph van Roye and Rudolf Weide
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:2
  7. Continuous attempts have been made to pinpoint candidate vaccine molecules and evaluate their effectiveness in order to commercialise such vaccines for the treatment of tropical fascioliasis in livestock. The ...

    Authors: Kanhu Charan Das, Ruchishree Konhar and Devendra Kumar Biswal
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:1
  8. Tuberculosis infection is a major complication of silicosis, but there is no study on whether silicosis can affect the sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assays. This study will analyze the r...

    Authors: Xin Yu, Li-Na Huang, Jun-Chi Xu, Yi-Yan Song, Hui Chen, Cui-Lin Shi, Pei-Jun Tang, Tao Tao and Ye-Han Zhu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:62
  9. Multiple antigenic stimulations are crucial to immune system training during early post-natal life. These stimulations can be either due to commensals, which accounts for the acquisition and maintenance of tol...

    Authors: Julie Hervé, Karine Haurogné, Arnaud Buchet, Elodie Bacou, Grégoire Mignot, Marie Allard, Mily Leblanc-Maridor, Solenn Gavaud, Anne Lehébel, Elena Terenina, Pierre Mormède, Elodie Merlot, Catherine Belloc, Jean-Marie Bach and Blandine Lieubeau
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:61
  10. The progression of acute-to-chronic atopic dermatitis is accompanied by multiple helper T-cell cytokine responses, but the mechanisms and relative importance of these changes remain unclear. There is no animal...

    Authors: Pengju Jiang, Yaguang Wu, Lu Liu, Lian Zhang and Zhiqiang Song
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:60
  11. Propofol is widely used in clinical anesthesia due to its advantages of rapid onset and less adverse reactions. This study focused on the role of propofol in the balance of Th17/Treg in elderly patients with l...

    Authors: Can Cui, Dengwen Zhang, Ke Sun, Yi Zhu, Jindong Xu, Yin Kang, Guangyan Zhang, Yujin Cai, Songsong Mao, Ruichun Long, Jue Ma, Song Dong and Yi Sun
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:58
  12. To determine the dynamic SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels induced by 3 doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac. An observational, prospective cohort study was performed with 93 healthy healthcar...

    Authors: Yue Tao, Mengyin Ma, Fenghua Hu, Ming Li, Yu Geng, Yawen Wan, Minxin Mao, Lin Chen, Ya Shen, Liguo Zhu, Han Shen and Yuxin Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:57
  13. A crucial role for the immune system has been proposed in the establishment and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, we investigated the cytokine and regulatory profiles...

    Authors: Marzieh Norouzian, Fereshteh Mehdipour, Mohammad Javad Ashraf, Bijan Khademi and Abbas Ghaderi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:56
  14. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) associated glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a group of autoimmune diseases and mono-macrophages are involved in its glomerular injuries. In this study, we aim to investi...

    Authors: Xiao-Ning An, Zhao-Nan Wei, Yin-Yin Xie, Jing Xu, Yan Shen, Li-Yan Ni, Hao Shi, Ping-Yan Shen, Wen Zhang and Yong-Xi Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:55
  15. Sepsis still remains a major challenge in intensive care medicine with unacceptably high mortality among patients with septic shock. Due to current limitations of human CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Breg cells (Bregs) studie...

    Authors: Chunmei Wang, Huihui Xu, Rui Gao, Fengying Leng, Fangjie Huo, Yinzhen Li, Siting Liu, Mingzheng Xu and Jianwen Bai
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:54
  16. Macrophages are mononuclear CD34+ antigen-presenting cells of defense mechanism and play dual roles in tumor burden. The immunomodulatory and their antitumor function of β-defensin 2 is still unclear, despite the...

    Authors: Sonam Agarwal, Anita Chauhan, Khushwant Singh, Kunal Kumar, Rupinder Kaur, Marilyn Masih and Pramod Kumar Gautam
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:53
  17. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the most dominant ILCs in heart tissue, and sex-related differences exist in mouse lung ILC2 phenotypes and functions; however, it is still unclear whether there are s...

    Authors: Hongyan Peng, Shuting Wu, Shanshan Wang, Qinglan Yang, Lili Wang, Shuju Zhang, Minghui Huang, Yana Li, Peiwen Xiong, Zhaohui Zhang, Yue Cai, Liping Li, Youcai Deng and Yafei Deng
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:52
  18. Plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells play a vital role in the protection against viral infections. In COVID-19, there is an impairment of dendritic cell (DC) function and interferon secretion which has bee...

    Authors: Anuradha Rajamanickam, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Arul Nancy Pandiaraj, Nandhini Selvaraj, Saravanan Munisankar, Rachel Mariam Renji, Vijayalakshmi Venkatramani, Manoj Murhekar, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, Muthusamy Santhosh Kumar, Chethrapilly Purushothaman Girish Kumar, Tarun Bhatnagar, Manickam Ponnaiah, Ramasamy Sabarinathan, Velusamy Saravanakumar and Subash Babu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:51
  19. Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) is used traditionally in west Africa to treat asthma, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, filariasis microbial infections and conjunctivitis. This study investigated the immunomodula...

    Authors: Parker Elijah Joshua, Junaidu Yahaya, Daniel Emmanuel Ekpo, Joyce Oloaigbe Ogidigo, Arome Solomon Odiba, Rita Onyekachukwu Asomadu, Samson Ayodeji Oka and Olasupo Stephen Adeniyi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:50
  20. Effects of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) on the exocrine glandular glands of Sjögren’s syndrome are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose IL-2 on salivary gland structure an...

    Authors: Junsong Wen, Fenglin Zhu, Xi Yu, Hualing Xie and Chengyin Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:49
  21. Cellular immune responses are phenotypically and functionally perturbed during HIV-1 infection, with the majority of function restored upon antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite ART, residual inflammation rema...

    Authors: Justin Pollara, Santosh Khanal, R. Whitney Edwards, Bhavna Hora, Guido Ferrari, Barton F. Haynes and Todd Bradley
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:48
  22. Considering the molecular heterogeneity of sarcomas and their immunologically quiet character, immunotherapy (e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors) plays a viable role in only a subset of these tumors. This stud...

    Authors: Weiwei Weng, Lin Yu, Zhang Li, Cong Tan, Jiaojie Lv, I. Weng Lao, Wenhuo Hu, Zhenzhong Deng, Zebing Liu, Jian Wang and Midie Xu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:46
  23. Excessive inflammatory response is the primary cause of early death in patients with endotoxemia. Interleukin 22 (IL-22) has been shown to play critical roles in the modulation of infectious diseases, but its ...

    Authors: Chang Yu, Qihua Ling, Junzhe Jiao, Juhong Liu, Zhihua Huang, Fang Wang, Xuehua Sun and Xiaoni Kong
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:45
  24. Autophagy is an important mechanism for promoting Mycobacterium clearance from macrophages. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterium can activate the mTOR pathway while simultaneously inducing autophagy. M. tu...

    Authors: Maria Gonzalez-Orozco, Emily J. Strong, Ruchi Paroha and Sunhee Lee
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:43
  25. The significance of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clarified. This study was dedicated to exploring the potential pathogenic roles...

    Authors: Xue Bai, Peng-Cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Hao-Miao Zhang, Si-Jing Wu, Xia Yang, Shan Gao, Jun-Ya Jia, Jian-Qing Jiang and Tie-Kun Yan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:42
  26. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell-mediated immunosuppression is an essential mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known regarding the specific role of CD4+CD25Foxp3+ Treg cells in RA...

    Authors: Bomiao Ju, Li Zhu, Jing Wang, Jian Zheng, Zhiming Hao, Jing Luo, Jing Zhang, Nan Hu, Qi An, Xiuyuan Feng, Yongwei Huo and Lan He
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:41
  27. T cell lymphopenia was a significant characteristic of severe influenza infection and it was associated with the functional changes of T cells. It is necessary to clarify the T cells characteristics of kinetic...

    Authors: Shuai Liu, Zhisheng Huang, Ruyue Fan, Ju Jia, Xiaoyan Deng, Xiaohui Zou, Hui Li and Bin Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:40
  28. This study was designed to investigate the role of the nucleotide-binding-domain -and leucine-rich repeat -containing (NLR) family, pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of polymyo...

    Authors: Ping Xia, Yu-Quan Shao, Cong-Cong Yu, Yu Xie and Zhi-Jie Zhou
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:39
  29. Tumor-associated macrophages are considered to be a major contributor affecting the development of tumors. Recently, numerous studies have shown that tumor cells were able to educate their microenvironment by ...

    Authors: Yilin Peng, Min Zhao, Yinying Hu, Hongyan Guo, Yanyan Zhang, Yanqin Huang, Lin Zhao, Yong Chai and Zhigang Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:37
  30. Major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated adaptive immune response as they present antigenic peptides (p) which are recognized by host T cells through a complex formati...

    Authors: Lisa Tomasiak, Rudolf Karch and Wolfgang Schreiner
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23(Suppl 1):36

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 23 Supplement 1

  31. Interleukin (IL)-7 signaling through CD127 is impaired in lymphocytes in cancers and chronic infections, resulting in CD8+ T cell exhaustion. The mechanisms underlying CD8+ T cell responses to IL-7 in melanoma re...

    Authors: Hongxia He, Binjun Qiao, Shuping Guo, Hongzhou Cui, Ziyan Zhang and Junxia Qin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:35
  32. HIV eradication efforts have been unsuccessful partly due to virus persistence in immune sanctuary sites such as germinal centres within lymph node (LN) tissues. Recent evidence suggests that LNs harbour a nov...

    Authors: Bongiwe Mahlobo, Faatima Laher, Werner Smidt, Funsho Ogunshola, Trevor Khaba, Thandeka Nkosi, Anele Mbatha, Thandekile Ngubane, Krista Dong, Ismail Jajbhay, Johan Pansegrouw and Zaza M. Ndhlovu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:34
  33. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. IL-5, POSTN, and IL-33 are important factors that act as chemoat...

    Authors: Hanna Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Milena Paprocka-Zjawiona, Anna Merecz-Sadowska, Radosław Zajdel, Katarzyna Bliźniewska-Kowalska and Katarzyna Malinowska
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:33
  34. Impaired spermatozoa immunogenicity can result in pregnancy complications such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Given that spermatozoa contact with microbiota, it is possible that inappropriate microbi...

    Authors: Mitra Rafiee, Nasrin Sereshki, Razieh Alipour, Vahid Ahmadipanah, Davod Pashoutan Sarvar and David Wilkinson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:32
  35. BKPyV associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKPyV-HC) is a major and prevalent outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with no standard treatment option. Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) against tran...

    Authors: Maryam Mohammadi Najafabadi, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Ahmadvand, Mina Soufi Zomorrod and Seied Asadollah Mousavi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:31
  36. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, which mainly includes lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells) and monocytes. Cryopr...

    Authors: Bo Li, Chunmei Yang, Gui Jia, Yansheng Liu, Na Wang, Fangfang Yang, Rui Su, Yulong Shang and Ying Han
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:30
  37. Enhancer of Zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is a polycomb group gene and an epigenetic regulator that inhibits transcription, a modification associated with gene silencing. EZH2 plays an essential role in humoral and...

    Authors: Shi-yi Wu, Zhao-yu Xie, Lu-yu Yan, Xiao-fang Liu, Yue Zhang, Da-an Wang, Jie Dong and Hong-tao Sun
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:28
  38. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogen that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Different types of the varicella vaccines derived from the Oka and MAV/06 strains are commercially available worldwide....

    Authors: Duckhyang Shin, Younchul Shin, Eunmi Kim, Hyojung Nam, Haiyan Nan and Jaewoo Lee
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:27
  39. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junctions. Cytokines play important roles in facilitating the immune response and augmenting the pathogenic antibody production. The cur...

    Authors: Xiao Huan, Rui Zhao, Jie Song, Huahua Zhong, Manqiqige Su, Chong Yan, Ying Wang, Sheng Chen, Zhirui Zhou, Jiahong Lu, Jianying Xi, Sushan Luo and Chongbo Zhao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:26
  40. Understanding the immune correlates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in HIV infection is an important area of investigation in the current era of aging with HIV infection. Less is known about CVD risk and ...

    Authors: Bagavathi Kausalya, Shanmugam Saravanan, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Shelly Rani Saini, Syed Iqbal, Sunil Solomon, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy and Savita Pahwa
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:24
  41. Asthma is a common chronic airway disease in the world. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of IL1-RL1 in sputum and its correlation with Th1 and Th2 cytokines in asthma.

    Authors: Changyi Xu, Lijuan Du, Fengjia Chen, Kun Tang, Lu Tang, Jia Shi, Lisha Xiao, Zhimin Zeng, Yuxia Liang and Yubiao Guo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:23
  42. To investigate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles and the variations of polymorphic amino acid changes in DRβ1 chain in Shaanxi Han population with Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI).

    Authors: Tianju Wang, Chunmei Shen, Hengxin Li, Liping Chen, Sheng Liu and Jun Qi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:22
  43. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and microneme-associated antigen (MIC) of Plasmodium parasites are important factors involved in host cell invasion.

    Authors: Min-Ju Kim, Ki-Back Chu, Hae-Ji Kang, Keon-Woong Yoon, Dong-Hun Lee, Su-Hwa Lee, Eun-Kyung Moon and Fu-Shi Quan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:21

Featured videos

View featured videos from across the BMC-series journals

Annual Journal Metrics

  • Citation Impact
    3.594 - 2-year Impact Factor (2021)
    3.857 - 5-year Impact Factor (2021)
    0.924 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper)
    0.828 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

    41 days to first decision for all manuscripts (Median)
    68 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only (Median)

    555,422 Downloads (2022)
    256 Altmetric mentions (2021) 

Sign up for article alerts and news from this journal