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  1. Recent studies have shown that early growth response 2 (EGR2) is highly induced in activated T cells and regulates T cell functions. In normal C57BL/6 (B6) mice, deletion of EGR2 in lymphocytes results in the ...

    Authors: Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Xiguang Xu, Hehuang Xie, Christopher M. Reilly and S. Ansar Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:41

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Outcome prediction for patients with sepsis may be conductive to early aggressive interventions. Numerous biomarkers and multiple scoring systems have been utilized in predicting outcomes, however, these tools...

    Authors: Lin Zhang, Cui-hua Yu, Kuan-peng Guo, Cai-zhi Huang and Li-ya Mo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The effects of intravenous immunoglobulin G replacement on perceived health and infection susceptibility of patients suffering from immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiencies should be evaluated in a prospective anal...

    Authors: Rudolf Weide, Roland Schnell, Christof Schardt, Michael Koenigsmann, Burkhard Otremba, Mark-Oliver Zahn, Jan Wierecky, Ute Braun, Manfred Hensel, Martine Klausmann, Doris Fleckenstein, Peter Ehscheidt and Stefan Feiten

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Oral fibroblast immunological responses to bacterial stimuli are well known. However, there are few studies about pulp fibroblasts from deciduous teeth (HDPF) responses, which are important for the treatment o...

    Authors: Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Thiago Jose Dionisio, Thais Francini Garbieri, Rafaela Alves da Silva, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira, Vanessa Soares Lara, Andrew Seth Greene and Carlos Ferreira Santos

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  5. RelB, a member of the NF-κB family, plays a critical role in the development of T cells. However, the role of RelB in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial.

    Authors: Shuping Zhou, Weiwei Wu, Zhaoxia Wang, Zhaopeng Wang, Qinghong Su, Xiaofan Li, Yong Yu, Weidong Zhang, Mingzhao Zhu and Wei Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Innate immune cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via release of cytokines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKi) are clinically efficacious in patients wi...

    Authors: Yuya Fujita, Naoki Matsuoka, Jumpei Temmoku, Makiko Furuya-Yashiro, Tomoyuki Asano, Shuzo Sato, Haruki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hideko Kozuru, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Atsushi Kawakami and Kiyoshi Migita

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) is a novel biomarker of sepsis used for early diagnosis. Originally, CD14 is known as the pattern recognition receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/LBP complexes, and the d...

    Authors: Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Tetsuo Mohri, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Nobuhiro Asai, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Kenta Murotani, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Macrophage M1 polarization plays a pivotal role in inflammatory diseases. Progranulin (PGRN) has potential anti-inflammation action, however, the effect of PGRN on macrophage M1 polarization has been poorly st...

    Authors: Lianlian Liu, Hongmei Guo, Aimei Song, Jiahui Huang, Yu Zhang, Shanshan Jin, Shutong Li, Liguo Zhang, Chengzhe Yang and Pishan Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cow antibodies are very unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 regions. The genetic basis for this length largely derives from long heavy chain diversity (DH) regions, with a single “ultralong” DH, IGHD8–...

    Authors: Brevin A. Smider and Vaughn V. Smider

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Follicular helper CD4+ T (Tfh) cells have a critical role in IgG4 production by B cells in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Recent studies including ours showed that SLAMF7+CD4+ T cells are an important pathologic...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Higashioka, Yuri Ota, Takashi Maehara, Masafumi Moriyama, Masahiro Ayano, Hiroki Mitoma, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Yojiro Arinobu, Takahiko Horiuchi, Seiji Nakamura, Koichi Akashi and Hiroaki Niiro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cholera, an acute watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and O139 across the continents. Replacing the existing WHO licensed killed multiple-dose oral cholera vaccines that demand ‘cold ...

    Authors: Tew Hui Xian, Kurunathan Sinniah, Chan Yean Yean, Venkateskumar Krishnamoorthy, Mohd Baidi Bahari, Manickam Ravichandran and Guruswamy Prabhakaran

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:29

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that the Angptl2 pathway mediated hepatic inflammatory response plays an important role in...

    Authors: Zengsheng Lu, Beihui He, Zhiyun Chen, Maoxiang Yan and Liyan Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  13. HLA class II tetramers can be used for ex vivo enumeration and phenotypic characterisation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. They are increasingly applied in settings like allergy, vaccination and autoimmune d...

    Authors: Christina Gerstner, Sara Turcinov, Aase H. Hensvold, Karine Chemin, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Tamara H. Ramwadhdoebe, Anatoly Dubnovitsky, Genadiy Kozhukh, Lars Rönnblom, William W. Kwok, Adnane Achour, Anca I. Catrina, Lisa G. M. van Baarsen and Vivianne Malmström

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Understanding pathogenic mechanisms is imperative for developing novel treatment to the tuberculosis, an important public health burden worldwide. Recent studies demonstrated that host cholesterol levels have ...

    Authors: Jinrui Xu, Yanbing Zhou, Yi Yang, Cuiping Lv, Xiaoming Liu and Yujiong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  15. It is widely hoped that personal cancer vaccines will extend the number of patients benefiting from checkpoint and other immunotherapies. However, it is clear creating such vaccines will be challenging. It req...

    Authors: Milene Peterson, Sierra Nicole Murphy, John Lainson, Jian Zhang, Luhui Shen, Chris W. Diehnelt and Stephen Albert Johnston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Often, patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), which are marked by the absence or loss of functional antibodies, require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy administe...

    Authors: Lisa M. Meckley, Yanyu Wu, Diane Ito, Todd Berner, Barbara McCoy and Leman Yel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  17. CD8+CD28 T suppressor (Ts) cells play critical role in transplant tolerance. Our previous study has generated CD8+CD28 Ts cells in vitro which exert robust allospecific suppressive capacity in vitro.

    Authors: Guihuan Liu, Yuming Yu, Fu Feng, Ping Zhu, Hua Zhang, Danni Zhang, Xiaoqiang Feng, Zedan Zhang and Yanjun Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Cancer cells subvert natural immunosuppression by upregulating the expression of checkpoint proteins and their ligands. For example, tumor cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) induce immune cell ...

    Authors: Isabella McGoverne, Jenny Dunn, Jacob Batham, Wen Juan Tu, Jeremy Chrisp and Sudha Rao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:22

    Content type: Review

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  19. CD72, a co-receptor of B cell receptor (BCR), has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on B cell functions in several immunological diseases. The B cell plays an important role in the patho...

    Authors: Yuqi Shen, Yuhua Ma, Jingyuan Xie, Li Lin, Yifan Shi, Xiao Li, Pingyan Shen, Xiaoxia Pan and Hong Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous lipid mediator of inflammation. Its production is regulated by the rate-limiting upstream enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We have recently demonstrated that the major cel...

    Authors: Whajung Cho and Jongseon Choe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Miscellaneous memory cell populations that exist before organ transplantation are crucial barriers to transplantation. In the present study, we used a skin-primed heart transplantation model in mouse to evalua...

    Authors: Maoshu Zhu, Yunhan Ma, Kai Tan, Liyi Zhang, Zhaowei Wang, Yongsheng Li, Yingyu Chen, Junjun Guo, Guoliang Yan and Zhongquan Qi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The use of immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of advanced cancer is rapidly increasing. Most immunotherapies rely on induction of CD8+ tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells that are capable of directly kill...

    Authors: Samantha S. Beauford, Anita Kumari and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Although immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the foremost primary glomerular disease, treatment of IgAN is still in infancy. Non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed for IgAN diagnosis. We investi...

    Authors: Na Guo, Qin Zhou, Xiang Huang, Jianwen Yu, Qianqian Han, Baoting Nong, Yuanyan Xiong, Peifen Liang, Jiajia Li, Min Feng, Jun Lv and Qiongqiong Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are a commonly used sample type for a variety of immunological assays. Many factors can affect the quality of PBMCs, and careful consideration and...

    Authors: Han Chen, Christian M. Schürch, Kevin Noble, Kenneth Kim, Peter O. Krutzik, Erika O’Donnell, Jason Vander Tuig, Garry P. Nolan and David R. McIlwain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Methodology article

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  25. The use of anti-B cell based therapies in immune-mediated diseases targeting general B cell markers or molecules important for B cell function has increased the clinical needs of monitoring B cell subpopulations.

    Authors: Susanne Axelsson, Anders Magnuson, Anna Lange, Aseel Alshamari, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist and Olof Hultgren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Hypoxia is a potent molecular signal for cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and migration. Conditions of low oxygen tension trigger regulatory cascades mediated via the highly conserved HIF-1 α post-tra...

    Authors: Shannon P Hilchey, Mukta G Palshikar, Jason A Emo, Dongmei Li, Jessica Garigen, Jiong Wang, Eric S Mendelson, Valentina Cipolla, Juilee Thakar and Martin S Zand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:13

    Content type: Research Article

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  27. CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic vaccine that uses as antigen a variant of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mixed with the bacterially-derived adjuvant VSSP. CIGB-247 has been already evaluated ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Yenima Martín Bauta, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana Victoria de la Torre Santos, Mariela Pérez de la Iglesia, Lian Trimiño Lorenzo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Inflammation appears to be an important component of concussion pathophysiology. However, its relationship to symptom burden is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship be...

    Authors: Alex P. Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Shawn G. Rhind, Doug Richards and Michael G. Hutchison

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) are two major competing treatment strategies for acquired aplastic anemia (AA). Whether allo-HSCT is superior ...

    Authors: Yangmin Zhu, Qingyan Gao, Jing Hu, Xu Liu, Dongrui Guan and Fengkui Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  30. B7-H6 has been revealed as an endogenous immunoligand expressed in a variety of tumors, but not expressed in healthy tissues. Heretofore, no studies have been reported describing B7-H6 in women with cervical c...

    Authors: Gloria Yareli Gutierrez-Silerio, Ramon Antonio Franco-Topete, Jesse Haramati, Eduardo Miguel Navarrete-Medina, Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Blanca Estela Bastidas-Ramirez, Martha Eloisa Ramos-Marquez and Susana del Toro-Arreola

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) present a significant obstacle to cancer immunotherapy because they dampen anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Previous groups, including our own, have reported on t...

    Authors: Andrea J. Luker, Laura J. Graham, Timothy M. Smith Jr, Carmen Camarena, Matt P. Zellner, Jamie-Jean S. Gilmer, Sheela R. Damle, Daniel H. Conrad, Harry D. Bear and Rebecca K. Martin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Clonorchis sinensis infection could trigger strong immune responses in mice and humans. However, whether the C.sinensis infection has an impact on arthritis is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of C.sinens...

    Authors: Xiangyang Li, Ying Yang, Suping Qin, Fanyun Kong, Chao Yan, Wanpeng Cheng, Wei Pan, Qian Yu, Hui Hua, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  33. There is a growing body of evidences indicating iNOS has involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. However, the role of iNOS in SLE is inconsistency. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the association ...

    Authors: Lu Pan, Sirui Yang, Jinghua Wang, Meng Xu, Shaofeng Wang and Huanfa Yi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and is caused by the Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis is often difficult becaus...

    Authors: Kei Amemiya, Jennifer L. Dankmeyer, Jeremy J. Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Spencer W. Stonier, Carl Soffler, Christopher K. Cote, Susan L. Welkos, David P. Fetterer, Taylor B. Chance, Sylvia R. Trevino, Patricia L. Worsham and David M. Waag

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool that is particularly well-suited to measure mRNA levels in clinical samples, especially those with relatively low cell counts. However, a caveat of this approach is t...

    Authors: Justin G. Roy, Janet E. McElhaney and Chris P. Verschoor

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Vascular calcification is often associated with chronic inflammation and is a risk factor for brain arterial stiffness. Our previous results showed that miR32-5p was positively correlated with vascular smooth ...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Ling Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Yingying Shen, Yan Gao, Qian Chen, Xuyu Zu and Jianghua Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cold stress, which may lead to local and systemic injury, is reported to be related to the immune system, especially the complement system. At present, the lack of effective treatment is a critical issue. Amen...

    Authors: Jiayi Cai, Chunyang Zhao, Yajie Du, Yuan Huang and Qingchun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Yersinia pestis, the etiological pathogen of plague, is capable of repressing the immune response of white blood cells to evade phagocytosis. The V-antigen (LcrV) was found to be involved in this process by bindi...

    Authors: Tiandi Wei, Jing Gong, Guojing Qu, Mingyu Wang and Hai Xu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:48

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Expansion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in hypercholesterolaemic mice protects against atherosclerosis while different ILC2 subsets have been described (natural, inflammatory) based on their suppress...

    Authors: Polyxeni T. Mantani, Pontus Dunér, Irena Ljungcrantz, Jan Nilsson, Harry Björkbacka and Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most complex complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current standard of grading system is based on clinical symptoms in skin, liver and intesti...

    Authors: Ping Zhang, Shujun Yang, Yujing Zou, Xiao Yan, Hao Wu, Miao Zhou, Yong Cheng Sun, Yi Zhang, Huiling Zhu, Kaihong Xu, Yi Wang, Li Xia Sheng, Qitian Mu, Liguang Sun and Guifang Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:46

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Ethiopia initiated antiretroviral therapy early in 2005. Managing and detecting antiretroviral treatment response is important to monitor the effectiveness of medication and possible drug switching for low imm...

    Authors: Hadush Negash, Haftom Legese, Mebrahtu Tefera, Fitsum Mardu, Kebede Tesfay, Senait Gebresilasie, Berhane Fseha, Tsega Kahsay, Aderajew Gebrewahd and Brhane Berhe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  42. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and more recently, subcutaneously-delivered Ig (SCIg), are used to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases; however, there are challenges associated with product pro...

    Authors: Bonnie J. B. Lewis, Jade Ville, Megan Blacquiere, Selena Cen, Rolf Spirig, Adrian W. Zuercher, Fabian Käsermann and Donald R. Branch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Mutant peptides presented by cancer cells are superior vaccine candidates than self peptides. The efficacy of mutant K-Ras, P53 and EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) peptides have been tested as cancer v...

    Authors: Deng Pan, Dapeng Zhou, Weijing Cai, Weibo Wu, Wen Ling Tan, Caicun Zhou and Yanyan Lou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:43

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Myeloid cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, which include monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), play vital roles in innate immunity, and in the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity....

    Authors: Hong Liu, Suryasarathi Dasgupta, Yu Fu, Brandi Bailey, Christian Roy, Eric Lightcap and Benjamin Faustin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. While the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is routinely used in Canada and some other countries to prevent pneumococcal infection in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients deve...

    Authors: Gabrielle Nicole Gaultier, William McCready and Marina Ulanova

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:41

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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