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  1. The forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor is one of the main markers of immunological suppression in different pathological profiles, and the presence of polymorphic variants may alter the gene e...

    Authors: Leonn Mendes Soares Pereira, Max Willy da Silva Madureira, Renata Bezerra Hermes de Castro, Isabella Nogueira Abreu, Simone Regina Souza da Silva Conde, Sâmia Demachki, Maisa Silva de Sousa, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andrea Nazaré M. Rangel da Silva, Sandra Souza Lima, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Brucellar spondylitis (BS) is one of the most serious complications of brucellosis. CXCR3 is closely related to the severity of disease infection. This research aimed to study the degree of BS inflammatory dam...

    Authors: Xin Hu, Xiaoqian Shang, Liang Wang, Jiahui Fan, Yue Wang, Jie Lv, Shaxika Nazierhan, Hao Wang, Jing Wang and Xiumin Ma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The immunosuppressive effects of regulatory B-cells (Bregs) and their immunosuppressive cytokines on immune responses in autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), have been recently esta...

    Authors: Mitra Abbasifard, Zahra Kamiab, Mohammad Hasani, Amir Rahnama, Pooya Saeed-Askari and Hossein Khorramdelazad

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized particles secreted by most cells. EVs carry nucleic acids that hold promise as potential biomarkers in various diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) in...

    Authors: Sukrutha Chettimada, David R. Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Steven M. Wolinsky and Dana Gabuzda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Pregnancy-specific β1-glycoproteins are capable of regulating innate and adaptive immunity, exerting predominantly suppressive effects. In this regard, they are of interest in terms of their pharmacological po...

    Authors: Valeria P. Timganova, Svetlana A. Zamorina, Larisa S. Litvinova, Natalia M. Todosenko, Maria S. Bochkova, Pavel V. Khramtsov and Mikhail B. Rayev

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Numerous investigations have previously evaluated the association of interleukin (IL) 4 gene polymorphisms and the risk of asthma, conferring inconsistent results. To resolve the incongruent outcomes yielded from...

    Authors: Ahmad Kousha, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Mehdi Forouzesh, Mojgan Hosseini, Markov Alexander, Danyal Imani, Bahman Razi, Mohammad Javad Mousavi, Saeed Aslani and Haleh Mikaeili

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Corticosteroids (CS)s suppress cytokine production and induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells. Prednisone and dexamethasone are oral CSs prescribed for treating asthma exacerbations. While prednisone is more c...

    Authors: Alexander Luchak, Lauren A. Solomon, Tharsan Kanagalingam, Meerah Vijeyakumaran, Brian H. Rowe and Lisa Cameron

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis of the childhood. However, its mechanisms and pathogenesis still need more exploration. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, a...

    Authors: Wenjia Chai, Xiaolin Wang, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Wenjun Mou and Jingang Gui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Previous studies have shown that tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for chronic airflow limitation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as the result of chronic inflammation, usually rel...

    Authors: Elise Guiedem, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, George Mondinde Ikomey, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Martha Mesembe, Mbanyamsig Mispa Yivala, Bih Hycenta Chendi, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Novel Njweipi Chegou and Marie Claire Assoumou Okomo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Chronic immune activation and hyperglycaemia are a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) while natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Dysregulated NK cell responses are associa...

    Authors: Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla, Tawanda M. Nyambuya, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Sithandiwe E. Mazibuko-Mbeje and Bongani B. Nkambule

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The use of inbred mice housed under standardized environmental conditions has been critical in identifying immuno-pathological mechanisms in different infectious and inflammatory diseases as well as revealing ...

    Authors: Josue Enriquez, Brianyell Mc Daniel Mims, Scott Trasti, Kathryn L. Furr and Matthew B. Grisham

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:50

    Content type: Review

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  12. Measles outbreaks have threatened the global elimination and eradication of measles in recent years. Measles virus (MeV)-specific antibodies are successful in clearing MeV infection. Follicular helper T (Tfh) ...

    Authors: Weiyun Shen, Hongzhou Ye, Xilin Zhang, Lixia Huo, Jingli Shen, Li Zhu, Xiang Wang and Dawei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  13. T cell activation is associated with increase in glycolysis and glutaminolysis. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein-3 (TIM-3), a T cell surface molecule, downregulates T cell activation a...

    Authors: Mi Jin Lee, Su Jin Yun, Bokyoung Lee, Eun Jeong, Gyesoon Yoon, Kyongmin Kim and Sun Park

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is increasingly utilized in primary immunodeficiency (PI). Understanding factors associated with treatment experience and satisfaction can optimize patient outcomes. We analy...

    Authors: R. Mallick, T. Henderson, B. J. Lahue, A. Kafal, P. Bassett and C. Scalchunes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Early detection of capecitabine-resistance could largely increase overall survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Previous studies suggested examination of immune cells in peripheral blood would help to ...

    Authors: Yu Lu, Yizhou Huang, Lei Huang, Yanjie Xu, Zien Wang, Han Li, Ting Zhang, Ming Zhong, Wei-qiang Gao and Yan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Numerous data obtained by different research laboratories indicate that specific IgE production is triggered independently of specific IgG or IgA ones and so it is not linked to fully matured germinal centers ...

    Authors: Dmitrii Borisovich Chudakov, Dmitrii Yuryevich Ryasantsev, Daria Sergeevna Tsaregorotseva, Olga Dmitrievna Kotsareva, Gulnar Vaisovna Fattakhova and Elena Viktorovna Svirshchevskaya

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes is an essential tool to evaluate the immune function of patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Predominately identified CD4+T cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, as well ...

    Authors: Hong-Qing Niu, Xiang-Cong Zhao, Wei Li, Jian-Fang Xie, Xiao-Qing Liu, Jing Luo, Wen-Peng Zhao and Xiao-Feng Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The underlying cellular mechanisms causing adverse reactions to food are complex and still not fully understood. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify functional and/or phenotypical immune cell signatu...

    Authors: Friederike Sonnet, Ellen Namork, Eva Stylianou, Ingvild Gaare-Olstad, Kanutte Huse, Sandra Andorf, Siri Mjaaland, Hubert Dirven and Unni Nygaard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:43

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Primary immunodeficiences (PIDs) are a group of chronic, serious disorders in which the immune response is insufficient. In consequence, it leads to an increased susceptibility to infections. Up to date, there...

    Authors: Karolina Pieniawska-Śmiech, Kamil Bar, Mateusz Babicki, Karol Śmiech and Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Recent studies have shown that early growth response 2 (EGR2) is highly induced in activated T cells and regulates T cell functions. In normal C57BL/6 (B6) mice, deletion of EGR2 in lymphocytes results in the ...

    Authors: Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Xiguang Xu, Hehuang Xie, Christopher M. Reilly and S. Ansar Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Outcome prediction for patients with sepsis may be conductive to early aggressive interventions. Numerous biomarkers and multiple scoring systems have been utilized in predicting outcomes, however, these tools...

    Authors: Lin Zhang, Cui-hua Yu, Kuan-peng Guo, Cai-zhi Huang and Li-ya Mo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The effects of intravenous immunoglobulin G replacement on perceived health and infection susceptibility of patients suffering from immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiencies should be evaluated in a prospective anal...

    Authors: Rudolf Weide, Roland Schnell, Christof Schardt, Michael Koenigsmann, Burkhard Otremba, Mark-Oliver Zahn, Jan Wierecky, Ute Braun, Manfred Hensel, Martine Klausmann, Doris Fleckenstein, Peter Ehscheidt and Stefan Feiten

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Oral fibroblast immunological responses to bacterial stimuli are well known. However, there are few studies about pulp fibroblasts from deciduous teeth (HDPF) responses, which are important for the treatment o...

    Authors: Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Thiago Jose Dionisio, Thais Francini Garbieri, Rafaela Alves da Silva, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira, Vanessa Soares Lara, Andrew Seth Greene and Carlos Ferreira Santos

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  24. RelB, a member of the NF-κB family, plays a critical role in the development of T cells. However, the role of RelB in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial.

    Authors: Shuping Zhou, Weiwei Wu, Zhaoxia Wang, Zhaopeng Wang, Qinghong Su, Xiaofan Li, Yong Yu, Weidong Zhang, Mingzhao Zhu and Wei Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Innate immune cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via release of cytokines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKi) are clinically efficacious in patients wi...

    Authors: Yuya Fujita, Naoki Matsuoka, Jumpei Temmoku, Makiko Furuya-Yashiro, Tomoyuki Asano, Shuzo Sato, Haruki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hideko Kozuru, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Atsushi Kawakami and Kiyoshi Migita

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) is a novel biomarker of sepsis used for early diagnosis. Originally, CD14 is known as the pattern recognition receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/LBP complexes, and the d...

    Authors: Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Tetsuo Mohri, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Nobuhiro Asai, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Kenta Murotani, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Macrophage M1 polarization plays a pivotal role in inflammatory diseases. Progranulin (PGRN) has potential anti-inflammation action, however, the effect of PGRN on macrophage M1 polarization has been poorly st...

    Authors: Lianlian Liu, Hongmei Guo, Aimei Song, Jiahui Huang, Yu Zhang, Shanshan Jin, Shutong Li, Liguo Zhang, Chengzhe Yang and Pishan Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Cow antibodies are very unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 regions. The genetic basis for this length largely derives from long heavy chain diversity (DH) regions, with a single “ultralong” DH, IGHD8–...

    Authors: Brevin A. Smider and Vaughn V. Smider

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Follicular helper CD4+ T (Tfh) cells have a critical role in IgG4 production by B cells in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Recent studies including ours showed that SLAMF7+CD4+ T cells are an important pathologic...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Higashioka, Yuri Ota, Takashi Maehara, Masafumi Moriyama, Masahiro Ayano, Hiroki Mitoma, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Yojiro Arinobu, Takahiko Horiuchi, Seiji Nakamura, Koichi Akashi and Hiroaki Niiro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Cholera, an acute watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and O139 across the continents. Replacing the existing WHO licensed killed multiple-dose oral cholera vaccines that demand ‘cold ...

    Authors: Tew Hui Xian, Kurunathan Sinniah, Chan Yean Yean, Venkateskumar Krishnamoorthy, Mohd Baidi Bahari, Manickam Ravichandran and Guruswamy Prabhakaran

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:29

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that the Angptl2 pathway mediated hepatic inflammatory response plays an important role in...

    Authors: Zengsheng Lu, Beihui He, Zhiyun Chen, Maoxiang Yan and Liyan Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  32. HLA class II tetramers can be used for ex vivo enumeration and phenotypic characterisation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. They are increasingly applied in settings like allergy, vaccination and autoimmune d...

    Authors: Christina Gerstner, Sara Turcinov, Aase H. Hensvold, Karine Chemin, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Tamara H. Ramwadhdoebe, Anatoly Dubnovitsky, Genadiy Kozhukh, Lars Rönnblom, William W. Kwok, Adnane Achour, Anca I. Catrina, Lisa G. M. van Baarsen and Vivianne Malmström

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Understanding pathogenic mechanisms is imperative for developing novel treatment to the tuberculosis, an important public health burden worldwide. Recent studies demonstrated that host cholesterol levels have ...

    Authors: Jinrui Xu, Yanbing Zhou, Yi Yang, Cuiping Lv, Xiaoming Liu and Yujiong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  34. It is widely hoped that personal cancer vaccines will extend the number of patients benefiting from checkpoint and other immunotherapies. However, it is clear creating such vaccines will be challenging. It req...

    Authors: Milene Peterson, Sierra Nicole Murphy, John Lainson, Jian Zhang, Luhui Shen, Chris W. Diehnelt and Stephen Albert Johnston

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Often, patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), which are marked by the absence or loss of functional antibodies, require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy administe...

    Authors: Lisa M. Meckley, Yanyu Wu, Diane Ito, Todd Berner, Barbara McCoy and Leman Yel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  36. CD8+CD28 T suppressor (Ts) cells play critical role in transplant tolerance. Our previous study has generated CD8+CD28 Ts cells in vitro which exert robust allospecific suppressive capacity in vitro.

    Authors: Guihuan Liu, Yuming Yu, Fu Feng, Ping Zhu, Hua Zhang, Danni Zhang, Xiaoqiang Feng, Zedan Zhang and Yanjun Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cancer cells subvert natural immunosuppression by upregulating the expression of checkpoint proteins and their ligands. For example, tumor cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) induce immune cell ...

    Authors: Isabella McGoverne, Jenny Dunn, Jacob Batham, Wen Juan Tu, Jeremy Chrisp and Sudha Rao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:22

    Content type: Review

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  38. CD72, a co-receptor of B cell receptor (BCR), has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on B cell functions in several immunological diseases. The B cell plays an important role in the patho...

    Authors: Yuqi Shen, Yuhua Ma, Jingyuan Xie, Li Lin, Yifan Shi, Xiao Li, Pingyan Shen, Xiaoxia Pan and Hong Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous lipid mediator of inflammation. Its production is regulated by the rate-limiting upstream enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We have recently demonstrated that the major cel...

    Authors: Whajung Cho and Jongseon Choe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Miscellaneous memory cell populations that exist before organ transplantation are crucial barriers to transplantation. In the present study, we used a skin-primed heart transplantation model in mouse to evalua...

    Authors: Maoshu Zhu, Yunhan Ma, Kai Tan, Liyi Zhang, Zhaowei Wang, Yongsheng Li, Yingyu Chen, Junjun Guo, Guoliang Yan and Zhongquan Qi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The use of immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of advanced cancer is rapidly increasing. Most immunotherapies rely on induction of CD8+ tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells that are capable of directly kill...

    Authors: Samantha S. Beauford, Anita Kumari and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2020 21:36

  42. Although immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the foremost primary glomerular disease, treatment of IgAN is still in infancy. Non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed for IgAN diagnosis. We investi...

    Authors: Na Guo, Qin Zhou, Xiang Huang, Jianwen Yu, Qianqian Han, Baoting Nong, Yuanyan Xiong, Peifen Liang, Jiajia Li, Min Feng, Jun Lv and Qiongqiong Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are a commonly used sample type for a variety of immunological assays. Many factors can affect the quality of PBMCs, and careful consideration and...

    Authors: Han Chen, Christian M. Schürch, Kevin Noble, Kenneth Kim, Peter O. Krutzik, Erika O’Donnell, Jason Vander Tuig, Garry P. Nolan and David R. McIlwain

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Methodology article

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  44. The use of anti-B cell based therapies in immune-mediated diseases targeting general B cell markers or molecules important for B cell function has increased the clinical needs of monitoring B cell subpopulations.

    Authors: Susanne Axelsson, Anders Magnuson, Anna Lange, Aseel Alshamari, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist and Olof Hultgren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Hypoxia is a potent molecular signal for cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and migration. Conditions of low oxygen tension trigger regulatory cascades mediated via the highly conserved HIF-1 α post-tra...

    Authors: Shannon P Hilchey, Mukta G Palshikar, Jason A Emo, Dongmei Li, Jessica Garigen, Jiong Wang, Eric S Mendelson, Valentina Cipolla, Juilee Thakar and Martin S Zand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:13

    Content type: Research Article

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  46. CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic vaccine that uses as antigen a variant of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mixed with the bacterially-derived adjuvant VSSP. CIGB-247 has been already evaluated ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Yenima Martín Bauta, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana Victoria de la Torre Santos, Mariela Pérez de la Iglesia, Lian Trimiño Lorenzo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Inflammation appears to be an important component of concussion pathophysiology. However, its relationship to symptom burden is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship be...

    Authors: Alex P. Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Shawn G. Rhind, Doug Richards and Michael G. Hutchison

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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