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  1. Content type: Methodology article

    Resident macrophages (Mø) originating from yolk sac Mø and/or foetal monocytes colonise tissues/organs during embryonic development. They persist into adulthood by self-renewal at a steady state, independent o...

    Authors: Kazushige Ogawa, Mayu Tsurutani, Aya Hashimoto and Miharu Soeda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:34

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Cytokines, chemokines, adipocytokines, soluble cell receptors, and immune activation markers play an important role in immune responsiveness and can provide prognostic value since they reflect underlying condi...

    Authors: Najib Aziz, Roger Detels, Joshua J. Quint, David Gjertson, Timothy Ryner and Anthony W. Butch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:33

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The development of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with the balance of Th17 and Treg cells. IL-2 and rapamycin can influence the populations of both Th17 and Treg cells. However, it is u...

    Authors: Chunmiao Zhao, Yanfang Chu, Zhaoyun Liang, Bingying Zhang, Xuxia Wang, Xiaona Jing, Meihua Hao, Yiqi Wang, Jia An, Xingzhe Zhang, Liguang Sun and Junwei Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:32

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected individuals substantially affects patients’ prognosis. However, the dynamic characteristics and pre...

    Authors: Chong-Xi Li, Yu-Ye Li, Li-Ping He, Jing Kou, Jin-Song Bai, Jun Liu, Bo Tian, Li-Juan Cao, Kun-Hua Wang and Yi-Qun Kuang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:31

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The persistent the inflammatory condition in multiple sclerosis (MS) may due to the aberrant regulation of the elimination of the pathogenic autoreactive lymphocytes through apoptosis. Survivin, encoded by the...

    Authors: Dariush Rahban, Forogh Mohammadi, Mehdi Alidadi, Taha Ghantabpour, Pedram Abbasi Ghasem Kheyli and Majid Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:30

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  6. Content type: Research article

    We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or Ig...

    Authors: Antony R. Parker, Markus Skold, Stephen Harding, J. Clayborn Barton, Luigi F. Bertoli and James C. Barton

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:29

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in psoriatic arthritis (PSA) patients by RNA sequencing, and to further explore potential biomarkers that we...

    Authors: Tao Yue, Mei Ji, Huanru Qu, Mengru Guo, Fengmin Bai, Zhanming Zhang, Weifeng Wang, Xuming Gong and Zhenghua Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:28

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Immune inhibitory receptors play an important role in chronic infections. However, little is known about their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Here, we analyzed the relationship between programmed d...

    Authors: Yuejiao Dong, Xuefen Li, Lu Zhang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Chunlei Chen, Jiaqi Bao and Yu Chen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:27

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  9. Content type: Research article

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a control role in contribution of B cell differentiation and antibody production. T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells inhibit Tfh-B cell interaction.

    Authors: Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Yi Li, Xiaojuan Wu, Xianding Wang, Lanlan Wang, Yunying Shi and Jiangtao Tang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:26

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  10. Content type: Research article

    In this study, seven adjuvants were compared for use with Plasmodium falciparum DiCo-Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (Pf-DiCo-AMA1), with the aim to identify an ideal adjuvant which yields high antibody titres and pote...

    Authors: Sumera Younis, Bart W. Faber, Clemens H.M. Kocken and Edmond J. Remarque

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:25

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating and autoimmune disease and its immune response is not fully elucidated. This study was conducted to examine the pathological changes and B cell subsets in experimental aut...

    Authors: Yingqiong Xiong, Shaomin Cheng, Xiaomu Wu, Yue Ren and Xufang Xie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:24

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Proinflammatory genes are highly expressed in several metabolic disorders associated with obesity. But it is not clarified whether gene expression levels and downstream inflammatory markers are related to the ...

    Authors: Parichehr Amiri, Behzad Baradaran, Maryam Saghafi-Asl, Mahsa Naghizadeh, Dariush Shanehbandi, Nahid Karamzad and Sepideh Zununi Vahed

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:23

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  13. Content type: Research article

    C5a is important for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-mediated activation of neutrophils. The present study aimed to assess the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in ANCA-mediated a...

    Authors: Jian Hao, Tiegang Lv, Liping Xu, Mao Ran and Kaili Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:22

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Autoimmune diseases result from aberrant immune attacks by the body itself. It is mysterious how autoantigens, a large cohort of seemingly unconnected molecules expressed in different parts of the body, can in...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Jung-hyun Rho, Michael H. Roehrl and Julia Y. Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:21

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  15. Content type: Research article

    CD44 is a multifunctional molecule that plays major roles in both leukocyte recruitment and tissue proliferation. Since mucosal hyperplasia and leukocyte infiltration of the middle ear cavity are major feature...

    Authors: Hyun Woo Lim, Kwang Pak, Arwa Kurabi and Allen F. Ryan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:20

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The adaptive immune system maintains a diversity of T cells capable of recognizing a broad array of antigens. Each T cell’s specificity for antigens is determined by its T cell receptors (TCRs), which together...

    Authors: Nathaniel D. Chu, Haixin Sarah Bi, Ryan O. Emerson, Anna M. Sherwood, Michael E. Birnbaum, Harlan S. Robins and Eric J. Alm

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:19

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Mouse models have been extremely valuable in identifying the fundamental mechanisms of airway inflammation that underlie human allergic asthma. Several models are commonly used, employing different methods and...

    Authors: Evelyn J. Hyde, Kirsty A. Wakelin, Naomi J. Daniels, Sayani Ghosh and Franca Ronchese

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:18

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis in neonates is hampered by non-specific symptoms and the lack of rapid responding laboratory measures. The biomarker soluble CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) seems promising in the d...

    Authors: Iris van Maldeghem, Charlotte M. Nusman and Douwe H. Visser

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:17

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Both antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells are essential for the maintenance of humoral immunity. To date, limit studies have focused on the two populations in Kawasaki disease (KD). To address th...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Yanfang Jiang, Jinghua Wang, Jinxiang Liu, Congcong Liu, Deying Liu and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:16

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency may increase risk of respiratory tract infection in adults unselected for IgG or IgG subclass levels. In a retrospective study, we sought to determine associations of se...

    Authors: James C. Barton, Jackson C. Barton and Luigi F. Bertoli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system and are subclassed into CD56BrightCD16Dim/− and CD56DimCD16+ NK cells. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is fundamental to regulate a numb...

    Authors: Cassandra Balinas, Helene Cabanas, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:14

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an RNA binding protein that plays a critical role in regulating proinflammatory immune responses by destabilizing target mRNAs via binding to their AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3′-UT...

    Authors: Yafang Tu, Xiongfei Wu, Fengyun Yu, Jianzhong Dang, Juan Wang, Yaxun Wei, Zhitao Cai, Zhipeng Zhou, Wenliang Liao, Lian Li and Yi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:13

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  23. Content type: Research article

    High Immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to Plasmodium falciparum antigens is associated with partial malaria protection in sickle hemoglobin (HbS) children. However, this response has been more studied in children w...

    Authors: George Msema Bwire, Mtebe Majigo, Robert Makalla, Lillian Nkinda, Akili Mawazo, Mucho Mizinduko and Julie Makani

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:12

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is associated with complications after kidney transplantation, such as graft dysfunction and graft loss. Early risk assessment is therefore critical for the improvement of transp...

    Authors: Nicole Wittenbrink, Sabrina Herrmann, Arturo Blazquez-Navarro, Chris Bauer, Eric Lindberg, Kerstin Wolk, Robert Sabat, Petra Reinke, Birgit Sawitzki, Oliver Thomusch, Christian Hugo, Nina Babel, Harald Seitz and Michal Or-Guil

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:11

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we demonstrated up-regulated activated CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as up-regulated cytotoxic NK cells in the blood of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, w...

    Authors: Li Zhu, Mostafa Aly, Ruben Jeremias Kuon, Bettina Toth, Haihao Wang, Hristos Karakizlis, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Eman Ibrahim, Naruemol Ekpoom, Gerhard Opelz and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:10

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Active immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) is a promising treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrated that a safe and effective AD vaccine should in...

    Authors: Ping Yang, Yongqing Guo, Yao Sun, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Xianghui Yu, Hui Wu and Wei Kong

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:9

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Natural killer cell responses to virally-infected or transformed cells depend on the integration of signals received through inhibitory and activating natural killer cell receptors. Human Leukocyte Antigen nul...

    Authors: Alexandra Tremblay-McLean, Sita Coenraads, Zahra Kiani, Franck P. Dupuy and Nicole F. Bernard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:8

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Systemic inflammation and the fever response to pathogens are coordinately regulated by IL-6 and IL-1β. We previously showed that CEACAM1 regulates the LPS driven expression of IL-1β in murine neutrophils thro...

    Authors: Zhifang Zhang, Deirdre La Placa, Tung Nguyen, Maciej Kujawski, Keith Le, Lin Li and John E. Shively

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:7

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are extensively used for research of immune cell functions, identification of biomarkers and development of diagnostics and therapeutics for human diseases, amo...

    Authors: Adriana Navas, Lina Giraldo-Parra, Miguel Darío Prieto, Juliana Cabrera and María Adelaida Gómez

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:5

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  30. Content type: Research article

    T cell activation induces ER stress and upregulates Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α), an activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Inhibition of IRE1α RNase activity in activated CD4+ spl...

    Authors: Cody Poe, Cheyanne Youngblood, Karissa Hodge and Kyeorda Kemp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:3

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human i...

    Authors: Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla and Larisa Y. Poluektova

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:2

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the innate immune response by activating the complement system via the lectin pathway, and it has been studied in several viral infections; however, the ...

    Authors: Viviane Martha Santos de Morais, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Georgea Gertrudes de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza and Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:1

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Circulating follicular helper T (cTfh) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that express the CXC-chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). These cells exhibit immune activities by inducing B cell differentiation an...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Yanfang Jiang, Jian Zhang, Yan Zheng, Deying Liu, Lishuang Guo and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:43

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  34. Content type: Correction

    It has been highlighted that the original article [1] contained a typesetting mistake in the middle name of Arthur F. Steinschneider.

    Authors: Brittany A. Goods, Jacqueline M. Vahey, Arthur F. Steinschneider, Michael H. Askenase, Lauren Sansing and J. Christopher Love

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:42

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    The original article was published in BMC Immunology 2018 19:30

  35. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages are crucial players in a variety of inflammatory responses to environmental cues. However, it has been widely reported that macrophages cause chronic inflammation and are involved in a variety of d...

    Authors: Yuta Sugiyama, Yukari Hiraiwa, Yuichiro Hagiya, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka and Shun-ichiro Ogura

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:41

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  36. Content type: Methodology article

    Oncolytic viruses have been proposed to be employed as a potential treatment of cancer. Well targeted, they will serve the purpose of cracking tumor cells without causing damage to normal cells. In this catego...

    Authors: Wenqing Ma, Hongbin He and Hongmei Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:40

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus reproduces by generation of conidia, which are spread by airflow throughout nature. Since humans are inhaling certain amounts of spores every day, the (innate) immune ...

    Authors: Lothar Marischen, Anne Englert, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Hermann Einsele and Juergen Loeffler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:39

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about the presence of specific autoantibodies in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. The object of this study was to explore potential autoantibody profiles in...

    Authors: Qiongyi Hu, Yue Sun, Yuan Li, Hui Shi, Jialin Teng, Honglei Liu, Xiaobing Cheng, Junna Ye, Yutong Su, Yufeng Yin, Mengru Liu, Jiucun Wang and Chengde Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:38

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) plays a significant role in the clinical management of HIV infected people by preventing morbidity and mortality. This benefit becomes, the most t...

    Authors: Gizachew Ayele, Belay Tessema, Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede and Gizachew Yismaw

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:37

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  40. Content type: Research article

    In coeliac disease, ingestion of gluten induces the production of transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted autoantibodies by TG2-specific plasma cells present at high frequency in the small intestinal mucosa in untre...

    Authors: Minna Hietikko, Outi Koskinen, Kalle Kurppa, Kaija Laurila, Päivi Saavalainen, Teea Salmi, Tuire Ilus, Heini Huhtala, Katri Kaukinen and Katri Lindfors

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:36

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  41. Content type: Methodology article

    Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, a...

    Authors: Qin Chen, Shengping Qiu, Huanhuan Li, Chaolong Lin, Yong Luo, Wenfeng Ren, Yidi Zou, Yale Wang, Ninghshao Xia and Chenghao Huang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:35

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Antibodies against Region III-V of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) 175 (EBA175RIII-V) have been suggested to provide protection from malaria in a natural infection. However, the quality and quantity of n...

    Authors: L. E. Amoah, H. B. Abagna, K. Akyea-Mensah, A. C. Lo, K. A. Kusi and B. A. Gyan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:34

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in ...

    Authors: Karima Sahmoudi, Hassan Abbassi, Nada Bouklata, Mohamed Nouredine El Alami, Abderrahmane Sadak, Christopher Burant, W. Henry Boom, Rajae El Aouad, David H. Canaday and Fouad Seghrouchni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:33

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  44. Content type: Research article

    IL-17A has emerged as a key player in the pathologies of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immunity to microbes since its discovery two decades ago. In this study, we aim to elucidate the activity of IL-17...

    Authors: Elaheh Movahed, Yi Ying Cheok, Grace Min Yi Tan, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Heng Choon Cheong, Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Sun Tee Tay, Pei Pei Chong, Won Fen Wong and Chung Yeng Looi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:32

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common syndromic immunodeficiency with an increased risk of infection, mortality from sepsis, and autoinflammation. Innate immune function is altered in DS and therefore we exami...

    Authors: Dean Huggard, Fiona McGrane, Niamh Lagan, Edna Roche, Joanne Balfe, Timothy Ronan Leahy, Orla Franklin, Ana Moreno, Ashanty M. Melo, Derek G. Doherty and Eleanor J. Molloy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:31

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Transcriptional profiling with ultra-low input methods can yield valuable insights into disease, particularly when applied to the study of immune cells using RNA-sequencing. The advent of these methods has all...

    Authors: Brittany A. Goods, Jacqueline M. Vahey, Arthur F. Steinschneider, Michael H. Askenase, Lauren Sansing and J. Christopher Love

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:30

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2018 19:42

  47. Content type: Research article

    Excretory-secretory products released by Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (EgPSC-ESPs) are well-known to regulate T cell responses. However, their direct influence on the differentiation of B cell subsets re...

    Authors: Wei Pan, Hui-wen Xu, Wen-ting Hao, Fen-fen Sun, Yan-fang Qin, Shan-shan Hao, Hua Liu, Jian-ping Cao, Yu-juan Shen and Kui-yang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:29

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  48. Content type: Research article

    The involvement of inflammasome activation and macrophage polarization during the process of syphilis infection remains unknown. In this study, A series of experiments were performed using human macrophages to...

    Authors: Li-Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Yu-Yan Chen, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Yao Xiao, Wen-Dong Li, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Li-Li Liu, Zan-Xi Fang, Jian-Jun Niu, Yong Lin…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:28

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