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Table 4 Intracellular and plasma cytokines and chemokines and their association with incidence of malaria during the first and second years of age.

From: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine does not modify plasma cytokines and chemokines or intracellular cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum in Mozambican Children

   5 - 12 months 12 - 24 months
   Tertiles* Two-fold increment Tertiles Two-fold increment
   Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Cytokines and chemokines IRR 95% CI P value§ IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value IRR 95% CI P value
  IFN-γ 3.24 1.13 - 9.33 0.052 4.62 1.58 - 13.47 0.004 1.21 1.03 - 1.43 0.021 1.26 1.07 - 1.49 0.003 0.95 0.38 - 2.39 0.635 0.68 0.32 - 1.45 0.533 0.97 0.84 - 1.11 0.639 0.96 0.85 - 1.08 0.5226
Intracellular IL-4 1.49 0.64 - 3.48 0.645 1.31 0.62 - 2.77 0.783 1.19 0.90 - 1.58 0.212 1.17 0.91 - 1.49 0.213 0.53 0.20 - 1.37 0.404 0.78 0.35 - 1.72 0.816 0.81 0.60 - 1.10 0.178 0.95 0.75 - 1.20 0.6635
  IL-10 3.11 1.12 - 8.67 0.086 3.40 1.30 - 8.89 0.033 1.32 1.04 - 1.67 0.022 1.38 1.11 - 1.71 0.004 0.97 0.38 - 2.47 0.989 1.39 0.68 - 2.82 0.239 0.98 0.80 - 1.20 0.833 0.96 0.82 - 1.12 0.5904
  IL-2 2.71 0.94 - 7.83 0.131 2.13 0.83 - 5.42 0.219 1.19 0.97 - 1.45 0.083 1.11 0.95 - 1.29 0.200 1.54 0.66 - 3.59 0.423 1.98 1.01 - 3.90 0.055 1.12 0.98 - 1.29 0.090 1.11 1.00 - 1.24 0.051
  IL-12 1.38 0.56 - 3.41 0.309 1.53 0.71 - 3.30 0.080 1.10 0.91 - 1.34 0.330 1.06 0.90 - 1.25 0.453 1.63 0.63 - 4.21 0.528 1.87 0.91 - 3.82 0.223 1.09 0.88 - 1.35 0.422 1.10 0.92 - 1.32 0.266
  IFN-γ 0.92 0.37 - 2.32 0.929 0.99 0.44 - 2.21 0.378 1.00 0.89 - 1.13 0.992 0.98 0.89 - 1.08 0.706 1.28 0.56 - 2.93 0.836 3.60 1.79 - 7.23 0.001 1.05 0.95 - 1.16 0.316 1.16 1.07 - 1.26 0.0004
  IL-1β 1.42 0.43 - 4.73 0.654 1.24 0.41 - 3.71 0.653 1.00 0.84 - 1.19 0.975 1.02 0.87 - 1.20 0.813 1.52 0.63 - 3.68 0.050 2.11 1.11 - 4.01 0.009 1.11 0.94 - 1.31 0.194 1.18 1.04 - 1.33 0.011
  IL-6 1.03 0.40 - 2.69 0.967 1.05 0.45 - 2.45 0.967 1.00 0.85 - 1.18 0.979 1.02 0.88 - 1.19 0.747 1.52 0.67 - 3.46 0.609 1.86 0.95 - 3.63 0.184 1.10 0.95 - 1.26 0.194 1.16 1.03 - 1.30 0.013
Plasma TNF 1.53 0.52 - 4.48 0.716 2.08 0.80 - 5.43 0.116 1.13 0.95 - 1.34 0.166 1.12 0.97 - 1.30 0.117 1.00 0.43 - 2.33 0.926 1.37 0.68 - 2.77 0.580 1.05 0.94 - 1.19 0.390 1.06 0.96 - 1.16 0.243
  IL-4 1.28 0.48 - 3.41 0.506 1.21 0.53 - 2.78 0.516 1.08 0.94 - 1.24 0.253 1.07 0.95 - 1.20 0.271 1.83 0.82 - 4.07 0.168 2.26 1.19 - 4.27 0.041 1.11 0.98 - 1.25 0.093 1.16 1.05 - 1.29 0.004
  IL-5 1.67 0.58 - 4.80 0.618 1.74 0.69 - 4.37 0.485 1.13 0.87 - 1.48 0.347 1.05 0.84 - 1.32 0.652 1.90 0.77 - 4.69 0.329 2.80 1.43 - 5.49 0.001 1.15 0.89 - 1.49 0.289 1.39 1.13 - 1.70 0.002
  IL-13 1.35 0.46 - 3.92 0.527 1.70 0.66 - 4.37 0.114 1.22 0.92 - 1.62 0.157 1.19 0.94 - 1.50 0.132 3.33 1.21 - 9.15 0.038 3.26 1.45 - 7.32 0.016 1.42 1.11 - 1.81 0.005 1.32 1.07 - 1.62 0.006
  IL-10 3.36 1.27 - 8.87 0.035 3.06 1.21 - 7.76 0.025 1.28 1.04 - 1.57 0.016 1.17 0.99 - 1.38 0.059 3.61 1.60 - 8.13 0.009 2.30 1.19 - 4.44 0.045 1.43 1.16 - 1.75 0.0004 1.25 1.06 - 1.47 0.006
  IL-7 1.77 0.62 - 5.04 0.529 1.41 0.56 - 3.52 0.594 1.26 0.92 - 1.73 0.137 1.10 0.85 - 1.43 0.456 1.56 0.62 - 3.96 0.242 2.16 1.09 - 4.30 0.029 1.20 0.88 - 1.65 0.245 1.34 1.04 - 1.72 0.019
  IL-17 0.67 0.25 - 1.83 0.622 0.76 0.33 - 1.74 0.551 1.01 0.83 - 1.23 0.914 1.04 0.88 - 1.22 0.681 0.78 0.30 - 2.00 0.055 0.80 0.36 - 1.77 0.278 0.97 0.79 - 1.20 0.785 0.92 0.78 - 1.09 0.342
  G-CSF 1.83 0.64 - 5.27 0.439 2.42 0.95 - 6.20 0.074 1.25 0.95 - 1.64 0.102 1.21 0.96 - 1.53 0.085 2.41 0.90 - 6.46 0.207 3.10 1.46 - 6.56 0.013 1.25 1.00 - 1.55 0.048 1.35 1.13 - 1.63 0.001
  GM-CSF 1.19 0.41 - 3.42 0.945 1.19 0.48 - 2.97 0.490 1.05 0.92 - 1.21 0.475 1.04 0.93 - 1.16 0.517 1.63 0.64 - 4.10 0.187 2.41 1.16 - 5.05 0.011 1.11 0.99 - 1.26 0.077 1.13 1.03 - 1.24 0.010
  MCP-1 3.01 1.18 - 7.63 0.064 3.16 1.37 - 7.25 0.015 1.64 1.21 - 2.23 0.001 1.66 1.29 - 2.15 < 0.001 3.07 1.34 - 7.06 0.008 2.85 1.43 - 5.69 0.007 1.31 1.02 - 1.69 0.038 1.36 1.11 - 1.67 0.003
  MIP-1β 0.52 0.20 - 1.35 0.113 0.83 0.34 - 2.07 0.341 0.92 0.67 - 1.27 0.620 1.10 0.80 - 1.51 0.571 1.50 0.67 - 3.40 0.396 0.98 0.50 - 1.94 0.329 0.98 0.78 - 1.24 0.859 0.93 0.76 - 1.13 0.430
  IL-8 0.68 0.27 - 1.71 0.646 0.77 0.34 - 1.73 0.809 0.95 0.79 - 1.14 0.580 0.98 0.82 - 1.16 0.781 0.72 0.32 - 1.62 0.402 0.61 0.30 - 1.22 0.100 0.95 0.80 - 1.12 0.543 0.97 0.84 - 1.11 0.633
  1. For each time interval (5 to 12 months and 12 to 24 months) P values correspond to each one of the analyses methods used.
  2. * Incidence rate ratio in high tertile relative to low tertile
  3. Incidence rate ratio in two-fold increment
  4. Adjusted by treatment group, gender, previous episodes of clinical malaria, current infection, neighborhood
  5. § Negative binomial regression model using likelihood ratio test. In bold, P values that remained statistically significant (P < 0.05) or border line significant (P < 0.095) after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Corrected P values (in order from top to bottom, left to right): intracellular IFN-γ, 0.083, 0.052; intracellular IL-10, 0.076; plasma IFN-γ, 0.022, 0.008; plasma IL4, 0.077; IL-5, 0.027, 0.031; IL-13, 0.093; plasma IL-10, 0.008; G-CSF, 0.018; MCP-1, 0.019, 0.002, 0.053.