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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with VL and/or malaria recruited at Tabarak Allah Hospital, Sudan

From: Cytokine profiles amongst Sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis and malaria co-infections

Characteristics Patient group P value
  1 2 3 Total  
Subjects ( n ) 29 21 15 65  
Male / Female ( n ) 20/8a 11/9b 9/6 40/23c 0.5
Age (years) 19 (9-29)d 8 (7-26) 16 (9-21) 15 (8-24)e 0.2
Hb level ( g / dL) 9.6 (7.1-12.4) 10.3 (9.1-11.2) 9.9 (7.5-11.5) 10.0 (8.4-11.4) 0.8
WBC count /mm 3 5650 (4925-6900)f 6800 (5900-8000)g 5400 (4250-7150)h 6050 (4950-7400)i 0.2
DAT titer 25600 (6400-102400) NA 12800 (6400-102400) 19200 (6400-102400) 0.9
P.f . parasitaemia (parasites/μL) NA 825 (355-2325)j 53 (38-585)k 370 (51-1113)l 0.005
  1. When not otherwise indicated, data shown represent median and (interquartile range).
  2. Hb = hemoglobin; WBC = white blood cell; DAT = direct agglutination test; P.f. = Plasmodium falciparum; NA = not applicable.
  3. Groups 1 to 3 are: 1 = visceral leishmaniasis patients, 2 = malaria patients, 3 = visceral leishmaniasis-malaria co-infected patients.
  4. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to calculate the P values, except for the variable sex for which the Chi-Square test was used, and for the variables DAT titer and P.f. parasitaemia, for which the Mann-Whitney test was used.
  5. P value refers to differences between groups 1 and 3 only.
  6. P value refers to differences between groups 2 and 3 only.
  7. Sex data based on a 28 patients b 20 patients c 63 patients. Age data based on d 27 patients and e 63 patients. WBC count data based on f 18 patients, g 11 patients, h 13 patients and i 42 patients. P. falciparum parasitaemia data based on j 12 patients, k 10 patients and l 22 patients. Two co-infected patients received artemether i.m. three weeks prior to diagnosis and their data on P. falciparum parasitaemia were excluded to reduce possible bias.