Prophylactic tuftsin infusion at day -1 in tPA-/- mice results in a dramatically early onset of EAE. (A) Disease onset occurs at day 3 in tPA-/- tufd-1 mice, much earlier than wt PBS (p = 0.03). Severity is dramatically decreased (p = 0.03) and recovery remained at a low level (p = 0.08). wt PBS n= 18, tPA-/- tufd-1 n = 11. (B) Luxol Fast Blue staining to visualize levels of demyelination. The dashed line and the asterisk demarcate the ventral column of the spinal cord. The intensity of luxol fast blue staining within the ventral column was quantified using the NIH Image freeware and was normalized to day 0 staining. Background staining was subtracted. (C) F4/80 immunohistochemistry for activated macrophages/microglia. (D) Immunohistochemistry for infiltrating T cells using an anti-CD3 antibody.