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Table 1 Influence of diabetes induction by STZ and propolis supplementation to diabetic mice on the body weight and blood biochemical parameters

From: Oral supplementation of diabetic mice with propolis restores the proliferation capacity and chemotaxis of B and T lymphocytes towards CCL21 and CXCL12 by modulating the lipid profile, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress

Days post STZ or vehicle injection Groups Body weight Glucose Insulin ROS IL-6 Cholesterol Creatinine WBC count Lymphocyte count
(g) (mg/dl) (ng/ml) (nmol/ml) (pg/ml) (mg/100 ml) (dg/ml) (x103/mm3) (x103/mm3)
 3Day 3 Control 28.8 ± 1.9 103 ± 11 6.6 ± 0.48 33 ± 2.8 19 ± 2.4 37 ± 2.8 5.2 ± 0.44 15 ± 1.4 10.6 ± 1.2
Diabetic 29 ± 1.7 243 ± 21.4* 4 ± 0.35* 42 ± 4.6* 28.4 ± 3.1* 35.8 ± 3.2 5.4 ± 0.52 12.4 ± 1.1* 8 ± 0.68*
 Day 14 Control 30 ± 2.3 93 ± 8.2 6.4 ± 0.61 36 ± 3.4 18 ± 2.2 38.4 ± 2.4 4.8 ± 0.6 15.4 ± 1.6 10.4 ± 1.6
Diabetic 25 ± 2.1* 297 ± 24.6* 2.8 ± 0.3* 77 ± 5.8* 46 ± 4.2* 53 ± 4.2* 7.8 ± 0.62* 11 ± 1.2* 7.4 ± 0.8*
Weeks post propolisor vehicle treatment Groups  
 Week 1 Control 32 ± 2.4 109 ± 8.8 5.7 ± 0.5 27.1 ± 2.9 24.6 ± 2.4 33 ± 3.2 5.4 ± 0.5 15.8 ± 1.1 10.7 ± 1.1
Diabetic 24.6 ± 2.1* 374 ± 31.2* 3.3 ± 0.4* 79.8 ± 5.5* 44 ± 5.2* 62 ± 5.4* 7.9 ± 0.22* 12 ± 1.2* 7.8 ± 0.9*
Diab + Propolis 26.8 ± 2.4+ 287 ± 24.8# + 4.2 ± 0.44+ 44.1 ± 4.2# + 41 ± 4.2+ 58.4 ± 5.8+ 7.7 ± 0.3+ 12.7 ± 1.6+ 9.1 ± 4.1# +
 Week 2 Control 33.4 ± 3.6 96 ± 10.4 7.1 ± 0.75 39 ± 5.4 22 ± 2.7 39 ± 4.2 5.3 ± 0.75 15.4 ± 0.88 10.8 ± 1.2
Diabetic 23.6 ± 3.1* 411 ± 34.6* 2.6 ± 0.29* 98.6 ± 8.4* 66 ± 5.2* 79 ± 6.4* 8.2 ± 0.9* 11 ± 0.9* 7.6 ± 0.9 *
Diab + Propolis 28.4 ± 2.4# + 284 ± 26# + 3.9 ± 0.38# + 64 ± 4.8# + 34 ± 3.2# + 61.2 ± 5.5# + 5.9 ± 0.48# 12.4 ± 0.5# + 9.1 ± 0.92+
 Week 3 Control 34.2 ± 4.2 89 ± 11.4 5.8 ± 0.6 25.5 ± 3.2 26 ± 2.4 22.8 ± 3 4.8 ± 0.6 15.8 ± 1.22 10.9 ± 1.1
Diabetic 23 ± 2.8* 382 ± 31* 2.2 ± 0.2* 102 ± 9.2* 68.8 ± 3.2* 82 ± 8.4* 8.46 ± 0.8* 8.4 ± 0.8 * 7.1 ± 0.6 *
Diab + Propolis 28.8 ± 3.5# + 261 ± 25.5+ 3.5 ± 0.34# + 51.6 ± 4.6# + 40 ± 3.8# + 42.3 ± 5.5# + 6.22 ± 0.44# + 13.1 ± 1.42# + 10.2 ± 0.65# +
 Week 4 Control 36.6 ± 2.9 119 ± 14 5.2 ± 0.45 31.5 ± 4.1 23 ± 3.4 19 ± 2.2 4.7 ± 0.42 15.4 ± 1.2 10.8 ± 1.4
Diabetic 22.84 ± 2.8* 368 ± 22* 1.8 ± 0.2* 144 ± 11.2* 79 ± 9* 59.6 ± 5.4* 8.8 ± 0.9* 8.5 ± 0.8* 6.7 ± 0.8*
Diab + Propolis 29.2 ± 2.6# + 244 ± 18# + 3.4 ± 0.35# + 48.6 ± 5.6# + 49 ± 6# + 37 ± 3.2# + 5.99 ± 0.37# + 14 ± 0.18# 10.1 ± 0.96#
  1. The body weight and blood biochemical parameters were measured in the 3 groups of mice throughout the experiment period. The pooled data for 3 mice from each group are expressed as the mean value for each parameter ± SEM
  2. *P < 0.05 for diabetic vs. control
  3. # P < 0.05 for diabetic + propolis vs. diabetic
  4. + P < 0.05 for diabetic + propolis versus control (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-test)