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Table 2 Results of statistical tests comparing cytokine expression in the GWI and HV groups

From: Evidence for abnormal cytokine expression in Gulf War Illness: A preliminary analysis of daily immune monitoring data

Immune biomarker GWI HV CV: GWI vs. HV t-test results GWI vs. HV GEE results GWI fatigue-cytokine LMM results
Conc. mean (sd) CV mean (sd) Conc. mean (sd) CV mean (sd)    
BDNF 23.36 (8.84) 29.78 (22.28) 23.97 (6.79) 16.86 (6.24) t(13) = −1.578, p = 0.138 χ 2 = 0.068, p = 0.794 F = 0.911, p = 0.341
Eotaxin-1 168.94 (66.21) 23.89 (3.99) 227.17 (129.9) 15.27 (1.78) t(11) = −5.173, p0.001 χ 2 = 3.221, p = 0.073 F = 3.467, p = 0.065
Factor VII 391.89 (124.38) 9.71 (4.75) 407.54 (54.29) 7.74 (1.63) t(13) = −1.104, p = 0.290 χ 2 = 0.180, p = 0.671 F = 0.849, p = 0.358
ICAM-1 118.89 (32.35) 10.6 (3.58) 125.21 (34.4) 9.59 (2.52) t(13) = −0.639, p = 0.534 χ 2 = 0.429, p = 0.512 F = 0.035, p = 0.852
IL-1β 4.49 (0.7) 15.61 (3.24) 3.84 (0.39) 10.49 (3.09) t(12) = −3.011, p = 0.011 χ 2 = 5.204, p = 0.023 F = 7.238, p = 0.008
IL-1Ra 579.28 (184.39) 25.68 (7.62) 636.16 (106.9) 21.87 (3.75) t(13) = −1.257, p = 0.231 χ 2 = 0.161, p = 0.688 F = 2.140, p = 0.145
IL-8 7.06 (1.42) 27.42 (15.1) 7.54 (3.88) 28.21 (13.9) t(13) = 0.106, p = 0.917 χ 2 = 0.483, p = 0.487 F = 5.046, p = 0.026
IL-10 6.09 (0.57) 17.23 (8.15) 5.69 (0.26) 16.07 (7.39) t(8) = −0.235, p = 0.820 χ 2 = 2.890, p = 0.089 F = 0.837, p = 0.364
IL-12p40 0.39 (0.1) 19.03 (2.34) 0.46 (0.07) 15.98 (3.1) t(13) = −2.126, p = 0.053 χ 2 = 1.845, p = 0.174 F = 3.418, p = 0.066
IL-15 0.76 (0.1) 15.6 (2.77) 0.73 (0.1) 14.49 (3.5) t(11) = −0.600, p = 0.561 χ 2 = 1.366, p = 0.242 F = 21.951, p0.001
IL-17 4.02 (0.27) 21.34 (12.13) 3.78 (0.19) 5.51 (9.55) t(4) = −1.776, p = 0.150 χ 2 = 2.379, p = 0.123 F = 0.391, p = 0.536
IL-18 287.44 (83.16) 12.79 (3.72) 243.66 (102.56) 10.38 (3.8) t(13) = −1.236, p = 0.238 χ 2 = 0.670, p = 0.413 F = 0.973, p = 0.325
IL-23 1.93 (0.11) 13.58 (3.76) 1.9 (0.13) 9.29 (2.84) t(10) = −2.259, p = 0.047 χ 2 = 1.280, p = 0.258 F = 1.320, p = 0.255
MIP-1α 35.24 (2.24) 7.26 (3.96) 38.87 (6.28) 7.94 (4.18) t(6) = 0.237, p = 0.821 χ 2 = 0.243, p = 0.622 F = 0.367, p = 0.547
MIP-1β 246.95 (82.29) 21.41 (7.05) 342.66 (125.03) 13.58 (4.42) t(13) = −2.536, p = 0.030 χ 2 = 3.121, p = 0.077 F = 4.451, p = 0.036
MMP-3 12.32 (5.2) 18.25 (7.12) 14.91 (5.81) 17.19 (8.39) t(13) = −0.262, p = 0.797 χ 2 = 0.745, p = 0.388 F = 1.140, p = 0.287
MMP-9 58.31 (15.98) 21.9 (8) 65.44 (28.67) 18.87 (3.42) t(13) = −0.977, p = 0.346 χ 2 = 0.428, p = 0.513 F = 0.865, p = 0.354
MCP-1 295.95 (173.89) 21.75 (7.38) 419.04 (167.77) 18.07 (8.38) t(13) = −0.897, p = 0.386 χ 2 = 2.704, p = 0.100 F = 1.142, p = 0.287
SCF 400.74 (98.01) 16.05 (3.18) 496.78 (80.29) 13.31 (2.31) t(13) = −1.925, p = 0.076 χ 2 = 4.302, p = 0.038 F = 2.560, p = 0.111
VEGF 161.42 (82.29) 19.92 (9.36) 190.26 (86.36) 13.64 (4.62) t(13) = −1.684, p = 0.116 χ 2 = 1.079, p = 0.299 F = 4.370, p = 0.038
Leptin 13.51 (6.25) 18.09 (4.4) 12.59 (10.22) 15.68 (3.47) t(13) = −1.182, p = 0.258 χ 2 = 0.003, p = 0.958 F = 0.405, p = 0.525
  1. For each analyte: columns 2–5 show the mean and standard deviation (sd) of the cytokine concentrations (conc.) and the day-to-day cytokine fluctuations (presented as the coefficient of variation or CV); column 6 shows the results of group comparison tests of the CVs between GWI and HV; column 7 shows the results of group comparisons of serum concentrations between GWI and HV; the last column shows the results of tests for associations between cytokine and symptom variability in GWI. Statistically significant results are bolded and underlined (at p=0.0098 which is α=0.05 adjusted for the expected false discovery rate in 93 statistical tests).