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Table 3 Immune responses against Giardia and control antigens as measured by the percentage of CD25CD26 positive CD4 T cells by flow-cytometry

From: Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome

  Exposed Unexposed p-values
Stimulation agent No PI-fatigue controls (n = 19) PI-CFS & ICF (n = 18) Fatigue other cause (n = 9) Recovered from fatigue (n = 10) Healthy controls (n = 10) Exposed (n = 56)vs unexposed (n = 10) No PI-fatigue controls (n = 19) vs PI-CFS/ICF(n = 19)
Giardia ass A 10 μg/ml 8.6 (5.8) 10.3 (7.7) 8.8 (5.0) 12.4 (8.1) 1.8 (3.9) 0.001 ns*
Giardia ass B 10 μg/ml 3.1 (2.2) 4.3 (7.3) 3.7 (3.9) 7.9 (5.7) 1.9 (1.6) 0.009 ns*
Tuberculin (PPD)10 μg/ml 6.6 (5.4) 11.3 (11.1) 9.2 (11.4) 13.6 (5.2) 10.0 (13.6) ns ns*
LPS S. typi 1 μg/ml 5.2 (5.5) 5.2 (9.6) 4.5 (2.5) 5.1 (2.9) 3.0 (14.6) ns ns*
  1. The values are percentages of activated CD4 T cells out of all CD4 T cells in stimulated cultures subtracted by the percentage of activated CD4 T cells in unstimulated culture
  2. *KruskalWallis test across all exposed groups was not significant (below p = 0.05). ns = not significant