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Table 4 Analyses of cytokines and sCD40L in supernatants of PBMC cultured for six days after stimulation with Giardia assemblage B lysate in persons exposed to this pathogen in the Bergen 2004 outbreak with or without fatigue sequels, and in unexposed controls

From: Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome

  Exposed Unexposed p-values
Analyte No PI-fatigue controls (n = 20) PI-CFS & ICF (n = 19) Fatigue other cause (n = 8) Fully recovered (n = 9) Healthy controls (n = 10) Exposed (n = 56)vs unexposed (n = 10) No PI-fatigue controls (n = 20) vs PI-CFS/ICF (n = 19)
IL-1b 8.4 (63.5) 23.7 (211) 10.0 (37.0) 37.3 (207) 0.8 (8.8) <0.001 ns*
IL-4 4.1 (6.6) 4.9 (4.8) -0.7 (7.4) 7.7 (5.6) 4.0 (29.4) 0.838 ns*
IL-6 496 (8364) 781 (18566) 957 (659) 741 (991) 85.3 (310) <0.001 ns*
IL-10 19.7 (23.3) 25.2 (354) 22.7 (13.2) 25.1 (5.9) 7.1 (25.3) <0.001 ns*
IFNy 1009 (3656) 1627 (4637) 775 (2569) 2577 (2322) 31.6 (956) <0.001 ns*
sCD40L 7.5 (25.0) 35.6 (59.0) 26.6 (27.3) 19.5 (53.5) 0.0 (43.2) 0.003 0.005
TNFa 192 (407) 346 (713) 213 (990) 395 (787) 7.6 (166) <0.001 ns*
IL-2 5.9 (9.3) 7.1 (8.1) 15.7 (15.1) 6.1 (8.9) 4.7 (4.6) 0.107 ns*
IL-9 11.7 (39.7) 23.5 (155) 20.3 (22.9) 23.6 (115) 2.8 (14.5) 0.018 ns*
IL-13 230 (203) 262 (212) 248 (371) 441 (272) 72.8 (100) 0.002 ns*
MIPa 51.1 (657) 112 (645) 252 (427) 692 (540) 15.5 (399) 0.034 ns*
MIPb 1691 (1856) 2306 (1939) 1754 (1618) 2862 (4195) 258 (1765) 0.034 ns*
TGFb1 -959 (2759) -2083 (2243) -1914 (1869) -2749 (3429) -3680 (1438) 0.033 ns*
TGFb2 -43.2 (61.7) 5.7 (46.4) 7.5 (111) 21.0 (45.0) -34.7 (61.1) 0.132 ns*
TGFb3 4.7 (23.0) -10.5 (19.3) -7.2 (8.3) -20.5 (15.3) -10.3 (43.0) 0.869 ns*
  1. *KruskalWallis test across all exposed groups was not significant (below p = 0.05)
  2. Values are pg/mL, median (SD) in stimulated cultures after subtracting measurements in unstimulated cultures. Values are given for analyte measurements that were of sufficient quality for further analysis