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  1. Content type: Research article

    Several inflammatory cytokines play a key part in the induction of osteoporosis. Until now, involvement of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-31 (IL-31) in osteoporosis hadn’t yet been studied. IL-31 is a proinflamm...

    Authors: Lia Ginaldi, Massimo De Martinis, Fedra Ciccarelli, Salvatore Saitta, Selene Imbesi, Carmen Mannucci and Sebastiano Gangemi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:60

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The chronic course of pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to lung dysfunction due to fibrosis, in which the signalling pathways TGF-β/Smad and VEGF-A may play a key role.

    Authors: Wojciech J. Piotrowski, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Paweł Górski, Adam Antczak, Witold Górski, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Ewa Nawrot, Karolina H. Czarnecka, Zofia Kurmanowska and Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:58

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a clinically heterogeneous chronic condition that affects many veterans of the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War. One of the most prevalent and debilitating symptoms of GWI is abnormal fatig...

    Authors: Luke Parkitny, Stephanie Middleton, Katharine Baker and Jarred Younger

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:57

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  4. Content type: Research article

    A significant barrier to organ transplantation is the cellular rejection that occurs and mediated by antibodies, T cells, and innate immune cells. This study was aimed to determine the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T...

    Authors: Liang Ma, Huimao Zhang, Kebang Hu, Guoyue Lv, Yaowen Fu, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Pingwei Zhao and Yanfang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:56

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells, followed by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and the subsequent extensive impairment of ...

    Authors: Ahmad A. Al Ghamdi, Gamal Badr, Wael N. Hozzein, Ahmed Allam, Noori S. Al-Waili, Mohammed A. Al-Wadaan and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:54

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Swainsonine can cause serious disorders in reproduction of livestock, affecting both corpora lutea and reproductive hormone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of swainsonine about the...

    Authors: Yanchun Hu, Lei Wu, Chengmin Wang, Jing Luo, Fei Liao, Hui Tan and Hongxuan He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:53

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) are critical in maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. Quantitative or phenotypic alterations and functional impairment of Tregs have been associated with the developm...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Ângelo Augusto, Cremildo Maueia, Nédio Mabunda, Eduardo Samo Gudo Jr, Nilesh Bhatt, Ilesh Jani and Wilson Savino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:52

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at ectopic locations. Although the prevalence of endometriosis is as high as 35 %–50 %, its pathogenesis remains controversial. An incr...

    Authors: Mary Lourdes Montenegro, Rui Alberto Ferriani and Per H. Basse

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:51

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  9. Content type: Research article

    As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection. However, it is not well known whether in utero exposure to the virus...

    Authors: Herbert Longwe, Kamija S. Phiri, Nyanyiwe M. Mbeye, Thandile Gondwe, Kondwani C. Jambo and Wilson L. Mandala

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:50

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    High quality genetic material is an essential pre-requisite when analyzing gene expression using microarray technology. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are frequently used for genomic analyses, but s...

    Authors: Christopher P. Corkum, Danielle P. Ings, Christopher Burgess, Sylwia Karwowska, Werner Kroll and Tomasz I. Michalak

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:48

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The changes in T-cell morphology during immunological synapse (IS) formation are essential for T-cell activation. Previous researches have shown that T cell changed from spherical to elongated and/or flattened...

    Authors: Wei Lin, Yuanzhen Suo, Yuting Deng, Zhichao Fan, Yijie Zheng, Xunbin Wei and Yiwei Chu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:49

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Comparative analysis of genome-wide expression profiles are increasingly being used to study virus-specific host interactions. In order to gain mechanistic insights, gene expression profiles can be combined wi...

    Authors: Juilee Thakar, Boris M. Hartmann, Nada Marjanovic, Stuart C. Sealfon and Steven H. Kleinstein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:46

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that shares many activities with other pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary glomerulonephritis (GN). This study assesses the influence of immunosuppr...

    Authors: Rafał Zwiech

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:47

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  14. Content type: Research article

    IFNγ-producing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127- Treg represent the first line of Treg during an immune response. In the present study we determined whether IFNγ+ Treg in-vivo and in-vitro are Helios-positive representing...

    Authors: Volker Daniel, Karina Trojan, Martina Adamek and Gerhard Opelz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:45

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth diseases. Modulation of host responses is an important strategy used by helminth parasites ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Hejun Zhou, Yujuan Shen, Yanjuan Wang, Weiping Wu, Haipeng Liu, Zhongying Yuan, Yuxin Xu, Yuan Hu and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:44

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Systemic immune activation (inflammation) and immunosenescence develop in some people with advancing age. This process, known as “inflamm-aging,” is associated with physical frailty and sarcopenia. Meanwhile, ...

    Authors: Mark A. Wallet, Thomas W. Buford, Anna-Maria Joseph, Madhuri Sankuratri, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Todd Manini, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:43

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  17. Content type: Research article

    TLR8 assists in antiviral approach by producing Type 1 INF via MyD88 dependent IRF7 pathway. However, over expression of INFα/β molecule poses threat by developing tolerance in chronic infection cases and enhanci...

    Authors: Anurag Adhikari, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Krishna Das Manandhar, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Hari Krishna Saiju, Rajendra Maan Shrestha, Nawneet Mishra and Shishir Sharma

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:42

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Pepsin-trypsin resistant gliadin (PT-gliadin) promotes intestinal tissue inflammation and increases paracellular permeability of immunogenic gliadin peptides into the lamina propria. This leads to the complica...

    Authors: Naiyana Gujral, Ju Won Suh and Hoon H. Sunwoo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:41

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  19. Content type: Methodology article

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pat...

    Authors: Davide Valentini, Giovanni Ferrara, Reza Advani, Hans O Hallander and Markus J Maeurer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:40

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a key cell-surface receptor of CD28 superfamily that triggers inhibitory pathways to attenuate T-cell responses and promote T-cell tolerance. As a crucial role in tumor immuni...

    Authors: Kailin Xing, Bingxin Gu, Ping Zhang and Xianghua Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:39

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious human health problem that affects millions of people in the world. Understanding the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is essential for tackling this devastating dise...

    Authors: Patricia Espinosa-Cueto, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Alejandro Magallanes-Puebla, Luz María López-Marín, Erika Segura-Salinas and Raúl Mancilla

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:38

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be an important determining factor of the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments. Although both glucocorticoids and macrolide antibiotics have been recommended f...

    Authors: Ming Zeng, Zhi-Yong Li, Jin Ma, Ping-Ping Cao, Heng Wang, Yong-Hua Cui and Zheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:37

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Lung inflammation is a major consequence of the systemic inflammatory response caused by severe sepsis. Increased migration of γδ T lymphocytes into the lungs has been previously demonstrated during experiment...

    Authors: Maria Fernanda de Souza Costa, Catarina Bastos Trigo de Negreiros, Victor Ugarte Bornstein, Richard Hemmi Valente, José Mengel, Maria das Graças Henriques, Claudia Farias Benjamim and Carmen Penido

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:36

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Abnormal immune function is often an underlying component of illness pathophysiology and symptom presentation. Functional and phenotypic immune-related alterations may play a role in the obscure pathomechanism...

    Authors: Sharni Lee Hardcastle, Ekua Weba Brenu, Samantha Johnston, Thao Nguyen, Teilah Huth, Naomi Wong, Sandra Ramos, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:35

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Technical feasibility of RNA quantification by real time RT-PCR has led to enormous utilization of this method. However, real time PCR results need to be normalized due to the high sensitivity of the method an...

    Authors: Mehdi Emam, Kathleen Thompson-Crispi and Bonnie Mallard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:33

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  26. Content type: Review

    The concept of the immunogenicity of an antigen is frequently encountered in the context of vaccine development, an area of intense interest currently due to the emergence or re-emergence of infectious pathoge...

    Authors: Siddhartha Mahanty, Antoine Prigent and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:31

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, which is characterized by autoantibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As one of the main water regu...

    Authors: Martin Juenemann, Tobias Braun, Simone Doenges, Max Nedelmann, Clemens Mueller, Georg Bachmann, Pratibha Singh, Franz Blaes, Tibo Gerriets and Marlene Tschernatsch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:30

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Scavenger receptor A (SRA) is expressed predominantly in phagocytic cells playing an essential role in the host immune defense against invading microorganisms. Our previous study reported the presence of SRA i...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Zuxiong Huang, Di Ma, Liqian Chen, Qintao Lai, Xuan Huang, Jia Zhou, Xiaoyong Zhang, Qiang Ma, Zhengliang Chen and Daming Zuo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:29

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which dysregulated immune cells attack myelin in the central nervous system (CNS), leading to irreversible neuronal degeneration. Our previous studies have d...

    Authors: Enyu Rao, Puja Singh, Yan Li, Yuwen Zhang, Young-In Chi, Jill Suttles and Bing Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:28

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  30. Content type: Research article

    HIV-infected long-term non-progressor (LTNP) subjects can prevent viral replication and may harbor useful information for the development of both antibody and active vaccination treatments. In this study we us...

    Authors: Yuxia Hao, Ge Bai, Junping Wang, Longfeng Zhao, Kyle Sutherland, Jianfeng Cai and Chuanhai Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:25

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  31. Content type: Review

    Blood platelets are first aimed at ensuring primary hemostasis. Beyond this role, they have been acknowledged as having functions in the maintenance of the vascular arborescence and, more recently, as being al...

    Authors: Adrien Chabert, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Bruno Pozzetto, Fabrice Cognasse, Mirta Schattner, Ricardo M Gomez and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:26

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, is induced by immunization of mice with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) injections, and after 9 days, mice d...

    Authors: Patricia J McLaughlin, Daniel P McHugh, Marcus J Magister and Ian S Zagon

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:24

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Monocytes and macrophages produce interleukin (IL)-10, an immunoregulatory cytokine and a potent therapeutic tool for immune disorders. Augmentation of IL-10 production with a concomitant reduction of proinfla...

    Authors: Masanori Inui, Kino Tazawa, Yoshiro Kishi and Toshiyuki Takai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:20

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, an immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TGF-β e...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Imad Lahdou, Jakob Ettinger, Mojdeh Heidary Navid, Volker Daniel, Martin Zeier, Jörg Hofmann, Gerhard Opelz and Paul Schnitzler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:19

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  35. Content type: Review

    Vaccination has been a major advance for health care, allowing eradication or reduction of incidence and mortality of various infectious diseases. However, there are major pathogens, such as Human Immunodefici...

    Authors: Mireille Centlivre and Béhazine Combadière

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:18

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  36. Content type: Review

    Malaria remains a major worldwide public health problem with ~207 million cases and ~627,000 deaths per year, mainly affecting children under five years of age in Africa. Recent efforts at elaborating a geneti...

    Authors: Audrey V Grant, Christian Roussilhon, Richard Paul and Anavaj Sakuntabhai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:14

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  37. Content type: Research article

    All-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) has been proven to skew Regulatory T cell-T helper 17 cell (Treg-Th17) balance toward Treg in vitro, favoring graft acceptance. However, its in vivo effect after solid organ transpl...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wentao Wang, Jianjiang Xu, Suqian Wu and Qihua Le

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:17

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Necrosis of alveolar macrophages following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Our previous study demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin s...

    Authors: Xiaoling Wu, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Yong Li, Chunyan Ma, Yujiong Wang and Xiaoming Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:16

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