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  1. Understanding pathogenic mechanisms is imperative for developing novel treatment to the tuberculosis, an important public health burden worldwide. Recent studies demonstrated that host cholesterol levels have ...

    Authors: Jinrui Xu, Yanbing Zhou, Yi Yang, Cuiping Lv, Xiaoming Liu and Yujiong Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:26
  2. It is widely hoped that personal cancer vaccines will extend the number of patients benefiting from checkpoint and other immunotherapies. However, it is clear creating such vaccines will be challenging. It req...

    Authors: Milene Peterson, Sierra Nicole Murphy, John Lainson, Jian Zhang, Luhui Shen, Chris W. Diehnelt and Stephen Albert Johnston
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:25
  3. Often, patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), which are marked by the absence or loss of functional antibodies, require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy administe...

    Authors: Lisa M. Meckley, Yanyu Wu, Diane Ito, Todd Berner, Barbara McCoy and Leman Yel
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:24
  4. CD8+CD28 T suppressor (Ts) cells play critical role in transplant tolerance. Our previous study has generated CD8+CD28 Ts cells in vitro which exert robust allospecific suppressive capacity in vitro.

    Authors: Guihuan Liu, Yuming Yu, Fu Feng, Ping Zhu, Hua Zhang, Danni Zhang, Xiaoqiang Feng, Zedan Zhang and Yanjun Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:23
  5. Cancer cells subvert natural immunosuppression by upregulating the expression of checkpoint proteins and their ligands. For example, tumor cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) induce immune cell ...

    Authors: Isabella McGoverne, Jenny Dunn, Jacob Batham, Wen Juan Tu, Jeremy Chrisp and Sudha Rao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:22
  6. CD72, a co-receptor of B cell receptor (BCR), has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on B cell functions in several immunological diseases. The B cell plays an important role in the patho...

    Authors: Yuqi Shen, Yuhua Ma, Jingyuan Xie, Li Lin, Yifan Shi, Xiao Li, Pingyan Shen, Xiaoxia Pan and Hong Ren
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:21
  7. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous lipid mediator of inflammation. Its production is regulated by the rate-limiting upstream enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We have recently demonstrated that the major cel...

    Authors: Whajung Cho and Jongseon Choe
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:20
  8. Miscellaneous memory cell populations that exist before organ transplantation are crucial barriers to transplantation. In the present study, we used a skin-primed heart transplantation model in mouse to evalua...

    Authors: Maoshu Zhu, Yunhan Ma, Kai Tan, Liyi Zhang, Zhaowei Wang, Yongsheng Li, Yingyu Chen, Junjun Guo, Guoliang Yan and Zhongquan Qi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:19
  9. The use of immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of advanced cancer is rapidly increasing. Most immunotherapies rely on induction of CD8+ tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells that are capable of directly kill...

    Authors: Samantha S. Beauford, Anita Kumari and Charlie Garnett-Benson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:18

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2020 21:36

  10. Although immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the foremost primary glomerular disease, treatment of IgAN is still in infancy. Non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed for IgAN diagnosis. We investi...

    Authors: Na Guo, Qin Zhou, Xiang Huang, Jianwen Yu, Qianqian Han, Baoting Nong, Yuanyan Xiong, Peifen Liang, Jiajia Li, Min Feng, Jun Lv and Qiongqiong Yang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:16
  11. Cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are a commonly used sample type for a variety of immunological assays. Many factors can affect the quality of PBMCs, and careful consideration and...

    Authors: Han Chen, Christian M. Schürch, Kevin Noble, Kenneth Kim, Peter O. Krutzik, Erika O’Donnell, Jason Vander Tuig, Garry P. Nolan and David R. McIlwain
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:15
  12. The use of anti-B cell based therapies in immune-mediated diseases targeting general B cell markers or molecules important for B cell function has increased the clinical needs of monitoring B cell subpopulations.

    Authors: Susanne Axelsson, Anders Magnuson, Anna Lange, Aseel Alshamari, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist and Olof Hultgren
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:14
  13. Hypoxia is a potent molecular signal for cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and migration. Conditions of low oxygen tension trigger regulatory cascades mediated via the highly conserved HIF-1 α post-tra...

    Authors: Shannon P Hilchey, Mukta G Palshikar, Jason A Emo, Dongmei Li, Jessica Garigen, Jiong Wang, Eric S Mendelson, Valentina Cipolla, Juilee Thakar and Martin S Zand
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:13
  14. CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic vaccine that uses as antigen a variant of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mixed with the bacterially-derived adjuvant VSSP. CIGB-247 has been already evaluated ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Yenima Martín Bauta, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana Victoria de la Torre Santos, Mariela Pérez de la Iglesia, Lian Trimiño Lorenzo and Marta Ayala Avila
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:12
  15. Inflammation appears to be an important component of concussion pathophysiology. However, its relationship to symptom burden is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship be...

    Authors: Alex P. Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Shawn G. Rhind, Doug Richards and Michael G. Hutchison
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:11
  16. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) are two major competing treatment strategies for acquired aplastic anemia (AA). Whether allo-HSCT is superior ...

    Authors: Yangmin Zhu, Qingyan Gao, Jing Hu, Xu Liu, Dongrui Guan and Fengkui Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:10
  17. B7-H6 has been revealed as an endogenous immunoligand expressed in a variety of tumors, but not expressed in healthy tissues. Heretofore, no studies have been reported describing B7-H6 in women with cervical c...

    Authors: Gloria Yareli Gutierrez-Silerio, Ramon Antonio Franco-Topete, Jesse Haramati, Eduardo Miguel Navarrete-Medina, Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Blanca Estela Bastidas-Ramirez, Martha Eloisa Ramos-Marquez and Susana del Toro-Arreola
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:9
  18. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) present a significant obstacle to cancer immunotherapy because they dampen anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Previous groups, including our own, have reported on t...

    Authors: Andrea J. Luker, Laura J. Graham, Timothy M. Smith Jr, Carmen Camarena, Matt P. Zellner, Jamie-Jean S. Gilmer, Sheela R. Damle, Daniel H. Conrad, Harry D. Bear and Rebecca K. Martin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:8
  19. Clonorchis sinensis infection could trigger strong immune responses in mice and humans. However, whether the C.sinensis infection has an impact on arthritis is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of C.sinens...

    Authors: Xiangyang Li, Ying Yang, Suping Qin, Fanyun Kong, Chao Yan, Wanpeng Cheng, Wei Pan, Qian Yu, Hui Hua, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:7
  20. There is a growing body of evidences indicating iNOS has involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. However, the role of iNOS in SLE is inconsistency. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the association ...

    Authors: Lu Pan, Sirui Yang, Jinghua Wang, Meng Xu, Shaofeng Wang and Huanfa Yi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:6
  21. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and is caused by the Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis is often difficult becaus...

    Authors: Kei Amemiya, Jennifer L. Dankmeyer, Jeremy J. Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Spencer W. Stonier, Carl Soffler, Christopher K. Cote, Susan L. Welkos, David P. Fetterer, Taylor B. Chance, Sylvia R. Trevino, Patricia L. Worsham and David M. Waag
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:5
  22. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool that is particularly well-suited to measure mRNA levels in clinical samples, especially those with relatively low cell counts. However, a caveat of this approach is t...

    Authors: Justin G. Roy, Janet E. McElhaney and Chris P. Verschoor
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:4
  23. Vascular calcification is often associated with chronic inflammation and is a risk factor for brain arterial stiffness. Our previous results showed that miR32-5p was positively correlated with vascular smooth ...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Ling Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Yingying Shen, Yan Gao, Qian Chen, Xuyu Zu and Jianghua Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:3
  24. Cold stress, which may lead to local and systemic injury, is reported to be related to the immune system, especially the complement system. At present, the lack of effective treatment is a critical issue. Amen...

    Authors: Jiayi Cai, Chunyang Zhao, Yajie Du, Yuan Huang and Qingchun Zhao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:49
  25. Yersinia pestis, the etiological pathogen of plague, is capable of repressing the immune response of white blood cells to evade phagocytosis. The V-antigen (LcrV) was found to be involved in this process by bindi...

    Authors: Tiandi Wei, Jing Gong, Guojing Qu, Mingyu Wang and Hai Xu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:48
  26. Expansion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in hypercholesterolaemic mice protects against atherosclerosis while different ILC2 subsets have been described (natural, inflammatory) based on their suppress...

    Authors: Polyxeni T. Mantani, Pontus Dunér, Irena Ljungcrantz, Jan Nilsson, Harry Björkbacka and Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:47
  27. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most complex complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current standard of grading system is based on clinical symptoms in skin, liver and intesti...

    Authors: Ping Zhang, Shujun Yang, Yujing Zou, Xiao Yan, Hao Wu, Miao Zhou, Yong Cheng Sun, Yi Zhang, Huiling Zhu, Kaihong Xu, Yi Wang, Li Xia Sheng, Qitian Mu, Liguang Sun and Guifang Ouyang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:46
  28. Ethiopia initiated antiretroviral therapy early in 2005. Managing and detecting antiretroviral treatment response is important to monitor the effectiveness of medication and possible drug switching for low imm...

    Authors: Hadush Negash, Haftom Legese, Mebrahtu Tefera, Fitsum Mardu, Kebede Tesfay, Senait Gebresilasie, Berhane Fseha, Tsega Kahsay, Aderajew Gebrewahd and Brhane Berhe
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:45
  29. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and more recently, subcutaneously-delivered Ig (SCIg), are used to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases; however, there are challenges associated with product pro...

    Authors: Bonnie J. B. Lewis, Jade Ville, Megan Blacquiere, Selena Cen, Rolf Spirig, Adrian W. Zuercher, Fabian Käsermann and Donald R. Branch
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:44
  30. Mutant peptides presented by cancer cells are superior vaccine candidates than self peptides. The efficacy of mutant K-Ras, P53 and EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) peptides have been tested as cancer v...

    Authors: Deng Pan, Dapeng Zhou, Weijing Cai, Weibo Wu, Wen Ling Tan, Caicun Zhou and Yanyan Lou
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:43
  31. Myeloid cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, which include monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), play vital roles in innate immunity, and in the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity....

    Authors: Hong Liu, Suryasarathi Dasgupta, Yu Fu, Brandi Bailey, Christian Roy, Eric Lightcap and Benjamin Faustin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:42
  32. While the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is routinely used in Canada and some other countries to prevent pneumococcal infection in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients deve...

    Authors: Gabrielle Nicole Gaultier, William McCready and Marina Ulanova
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:41
  33. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key component of innate immunity. Low serum MBL levels, related to promoter polymorphism and structural variants, have been associated with an increased risk of infection. The...

    Authors: M. Puente, C. Fariñas-Alvarez, A. Moreto, P. Sánchez-Velasco, J. G. Ocejo-Vinyals and M. C. Fariñas
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:40
  34. Induction therapy of multiple myeloma patients prior to autologous stem cell transplantation has changed from conventional chemotherapy to treatment based on proteasome inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs. We...

    Authors: Ida Marie Rundgren, Elisabeth Ersvær, Aymen Bushra Ahmed, Anita Ryningen and Øystein Bruserud
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:39
  35. Helios has been reported to stabilize regulatory T (Treg) suppressive function. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression in three human monocyte subsets modulates immune responses. Recently, our team ...

    Authors: Lifeng Liu, Qiuyue Zhang, Peng Chen, Na Guo, Aixin Song, Xiaojie Huang, Wei Xia, Li Li, Christiane Moog, Hao Wu, Bin Su and Tong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:38
  36. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus that presents a high risk of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we used CIBERSORT and gene set enrichment analysis (GSE...

    Authors: Yiling Cao, Weihao Tang and Wanxin Tang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:37
  37. A previous study demonstrated pleural fluid (PF) IgA immunodominance for the fused MT10.3:MPT64 protein in pleural tuberculosis (PLTB) cases. However, no clue on the role of IgA and IgG against this and other ...

    Authors: Renan Jeremias da Silva, Raquel da Silva Corrêa, Isabela Gama Sardella, Ana Carla de Paulo Mulinari, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Ana Paula Santos, Rogério Rufino, Luciana Silva Rodrigues and Maria Helena Féres Saad
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:36
  38. HIV-infected individuals with latent TB infection are at increased risk of developing active TB. HAART greatly reduces the incidence rate of TB in HIV-infected patients and reconstitutes Mycobacterium tuberculosi...

    Authors: Girmay Desalegn, Aster Tsegaye, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Abraham Aseffa and Rawleigh Howe
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:35
  39. Resident macrophages (Mø) originating from yolk sac Mø and/or foetal monocytes colonise tissues/organs during embryonic development. They persist into adulthood by self-renewal at a steady state, independent o...

    Authors: Kazushige Ogawa, Mayu Tsurutani, Aya Hashimoto and Miharu Soeda
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:34
  40. Cytokines, chemokines, adipocytokines, soluble cell receptors, and immune activation markers play an important role in immune responsiveness and can provide prognostic value since they reflect underlying condi...

    Authors: Najib Aziz, Roger Detels, Joshua J. Quint, David Gjertson, Timothy Ryner and Anthony W. Butch
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:33
  41. The development of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with the balance of Th17 and Treg cells. IL-2 and rapamycin can influence the populations of both Th17 and Treg cells. However, it is u...

    Authors: Chunmiao Zhao, Yanfang Chu, Zhaoyun Liang, Bingying Zhang, Xuxia Wang, Xiaona Jing, Meihua Hao, Yiqi Wang, Jia An, Xingzhe Zhang, Liguang Sun and Junwei Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:32
  42. The immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected individuals substantially affects patients’ prognosis. However, the dynamic characteristics and pre...

    Authors: Chong-Xi Li, Yu-Ye Li, Li-Ping He, Jing Kou, Jin-Song Bai, Jun Liu, Bo Tian, Li-Juan Cao, Kun-Hua Wang and Yi-Qun Kuang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:31
  43. The persistent the inflammatory condition in multiple sclerosis (MS) may due to the aberrant regulation of the elimination of the pathogenic autoreactive lymphocytes through apoptosis. Survivin, encoded by the...

    Authors: Dariush Rahban, Forogh Mohammadi, Mehdi Alidadi, Taha Ghantabpour, Pedram Abbasi Ghasem Kheyli and Majid Ahmadi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:30
  44. We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or Ig...

    Authors: Antony R. Parker, Markus Skold, Stephen Harding, J. Clayborn Barton, Luigi F. Bertoli and James C. Barton
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:29
  45. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in psoriatic arthritis (PSA) patients by RNA sequencing, and to further explore potential biomarkers that we...

    Authors: Tao Yue, Mei Ji, Huanru Qu, Mengru Guo, Fengmin Bai, Zhanming Zhang, Weifeng Wang, Xuming Gong and Zhenghua Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:28
  46. Immune inhibitory receptors play an important role in chronic infections. However, little is known about their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Here, we analyzed the relationship between programmed d...

    Authors: Yuejiao Dong, Xuefen Li, Lu Zhang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Chunlei Chen, Jiaqi Bao and Yu Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:27
  47. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a control role in contribution of B cell differentiation and antibody production. T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells inhibit Tfh-B cell interaction.

    Authors: Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Yi Li, Xiaojuan Wu, Xianding Wang, Lanlan Wang, Yunying Shi and Jiangtao Tang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2019 20:26

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