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  1. The natural antibody responses to B-cell epitopes from dengue structural proteins were assessed using immune sera from people having well-defined past dengue infections with one of the four serotypes.

    Authors: Mahesha N. Nadugala, Chandima Jeewandara, Ramesh S. Jadi, Gathsaurie N. Malavige, Aravinda M. de Silva, Prasad H. Premaratne and Charitha L. Goonasekara
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:71
  2. Hemodialysis (HD) patients have an increased risk of acquiring infections due to many health care contacts and may, in addition, have a suboptimal response to vaccination and a high mortality from Covid-19 inf...

    Authors: Jan Melin, Maria K. Svensson, Bo Albinsson, Ola Winqvist and Karlis Pauksens
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:70
  3. Previous studies have indicated that the programmed death molecule 1 (PD-1) signaling pathway may play a key role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis-related interst...

    Authors: Li Xu, Lichun Jiang, Liuyan Nie, Songzhao Zhang, Lei Liu, Yan Du and Jing Xue
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:69
  4. The necessity of the tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adolescence and adults has been emphasized since the resurgence of small-scale pertussis in Korea and worldwide due to...

    Authors: Kyu Ri Kang, Dong Ho Huh, Ji Ahn Kim and Jin Han Kang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:68
  5. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play central roles in the initiation of innate immune response, and also control adaptive immunity activation. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the regulation of TLR act...

    Authors: Junli Xu, Rongya Guo, Jing Jia, Yun He and Shuixiang He
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:67
  6. Currently, research on the quantitative distribution of ABO antigens in different organs and tissues remains limited. We aimed to examine the individual characteristics of blood group glycoprotein A and B anti...

    Authors: Xianding Wang, Fan Zhang, Yamei Jiang, Zilin Xu, Xiaobing Feng, Linde Li, Yu Fan, Turun Song, Yunying Shi, Zhongli Huang and Tao Lin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:66
  7. Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with a T cell receptor (TCR) is a promising cancer treatment modality that requires the identification of TCRs with good characteristics. Most T cell cloning...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Lianhua Dong, Yipeng Ma, Juntao Wang, Dongjuan Qiao, Geng Tian and Mingjun Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:65
  8. Immuno-epidemiologists are often faced with multivariate outcomes, measured repeatedly over time. Such data are characterised by complex inter- and intra-outcome relationships which must be accounted for durin...

    Authors: Lawrence Lubyayi, Patrice A. Mawa, Stephen Cose, Alison M. Elliott, Jonathan Levin and Emily L. Webb
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:63
  9. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD) is a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterised by a predisposition to infection by weakly-pathogenic mycobacteria. In countries with a high prevalenc...

    Authors: Ansia van Coller, Brigitte Glanzmann, Helena Cornelissen, Marlo Möller, Craig Kinnear, Monika Esser and Richard Glashoff
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:62
  10. Although the onset of inflammatory cascades may profoundly influence the nature of antibody responses, the interplay between inflammatory and humoral (antibody) immune markers remains unclear. Thus, we explore...

    Authors: Aida Santaolalla, Sam Sollie, Ali Rislan, Debra H. Josephs, Niklas Hammar, Goran Walldius, Hans Garmo, Sophia N. Karagiannis and Mieke Van Hemelrijck
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:61
  11. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have aroused great expectation of tumor eradication. However, the effect of anti-PD-L1 treatment for cervical cancer is unsatisfactory and the underlying antagonist to anti-PD-L1 e...

    Authors: Fengying Xu, Fengying Zhang, Qian Wang, Ying Xu, Shuifang Xu, Caihong Zhang and Lihua Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:60
  12. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are lymphoid lineage innate immune cells that do not mount antigen-specific responses due to their lack of B and T-cell receptors. ILCs are predominantly found at mucosal surfaces, ...

    Authors: Rose Nabatanzi, Lois Bayigga, Stephen Cose, Glenda Canderan, Sarah Rowland Jones, Moses Joloba and Damalie Nakanjako
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:59
  13. Intratumoral regulatory T cells (Treg) in colon cancer are a heterogeneous cell population, with potential impact on patient outcome. Generally, a high Treg infiltration has been correlated to a worse patient ...

    Authors: Louis Szeponik, Filip Ahlmanner, Patrik Sundström, William Rodin, Bengt Gustavsson, Elinor Bexe Lindskog, Yvonne Wettergren and Marianne Quiding-Järbrink
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:58
  14. Circadian rhythm is an important player for reproduction. Rev-erbα, a significant clock gene, is involved in regulating cell differentiation, inflammation and metabolism. Macrophage polarization plays crucial ...

    Authors: Liyuan Cui, Feng Xu, Songcun Wang, Xinyi Li, Haiyan Lin, Yan Ding and Meirong Du
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:57
  15. Invariant chain (CD74, Ii) is a multifunctional protein expressed in antigen presenting cells. It assists the ER exit of various cargos and serves as a receptor for the macrophage migration inhibitory factor. ...

    Authors: Maryse Cloutier, Jean-Simon Fortin and Jacques Thibodeau
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:56
  16. Cancer immunotherapy has gained increasing popularity as a novel approach to treat cancer. A member of the B7 family, V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a novel immune checkpoin...

    Authors: Ting-ting Li, Jing-wei Jiang, Chen-xin Qie, Chun-xiao Xuan, Xin-lei Hu, Wan-mei Liu, Wen-ting Chen and Jun Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:55
  17. Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and adiponectin are critically involved in metabolism. The reversal and associations of altering adiponectin levels after sustained virological responses (SVRs) following...

    Authors: Ming-Ling Chang, Jing-Hong Hu, Li-Heng Pao, Ming-Shyan Lin, Chia-Jung Kuo, Shiang-Chi Chen, Chun-Ming Fan, Ming-Yu Chang and Rong-Nan Chien
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:54
  18. Current research suggests that the glial scar surrounding penetrating brain injuries is instrumental in preserving the surrounding uninjured tissue by limiting the inflammatory response to the injury site. We ...

    Authors: Kazadi Nadine Mutoji, Mingxia Sun, Amanda Nash, Sudan Puri, Vincent Hascall and Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:52
  19. Neutrophils induce the synthesis and release of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), a cytosolic growth factor involved in angiogenesis and capable of inducing several pro-inflammatory activities in neutrophils. Neutrophils...

    Authors: Elcha Charles, Benjamin L. Dumont, Steven Bonneau, Paul-Eduard Neagoe, Louis Villeneuve, Agnès Räkel, Michel White and Martin G. Sirois
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:51
  20. Good's syndrome (GS) is a rare secondary immunodeficiency disease presenting as thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. Due to its rarity, the diagnosis of GS is often missed.

    Authors: Jinyao Ni, Junwu Zhang, Yanxia Chen, Weizhong Wang and Jinlin Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:50
  21. Targeted immunotherapy is mostly associated with cancer treatment wherein designed molecules engage signaling pathways and mutant proteins critical to the survival of the cell. One of several genetic approache...

    Authors: Daniel A. Achinko, Anton Dormer, Mahesh Narayanan and Elton F. Norman
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:49
  22. The presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*57:01 is associated with the development of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir (ABC). Limited data exist on HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in individuals with HIV...

    Authors: Malewe Kolou, Armel Poda, Zelica Diallo, Esther Konou, Tatiana Dokpomiwa, Jacques Zoungrana, Mounerou Salou, Lionèle Mba-Tchounga, André Bigot, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Marielle Bouyout-Akoutet, Didier K. Ekouevi and Serge P. Eholie
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:48
  23. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity for patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. There is preliminary evidence that activated Group 2 innate l...

    Authors: Anand Srinivasan, Sandra Bajana, Aneta Pankow, Carrie Yuen, Rikin K. Shah and Xiao-Hong Sun
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:46
  24. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a typical immuno-inhibitory cytokine and highly secreted by lung cancer cells. It was supposed that its immunosuppressive effects to NK cell might be related with the...

    Authors: Young Shin Lee, Hojung Choi, Hae-Ryung Cho, Woo-Chang Son, You-Soo Park, Chi-Dug Kang and Jaeho Bae
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:44
  25. The successful ex vivo expansion of T-cells in great numbers is the cornerstone of adoptive cell therapy. We aimed to achieve the most optimal T-cell expansion condition by comparing the expansion of T-cells a...

    Authors: Sasan Ghaffari, Monireh Torabi-Rahvar, Sajjad Aghayan, Zahra Jabbarpour, Kobra Moradzadeh, Azadeh Omidkhoda and Naser Ahmadbeigi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:43
  26. Obesity is correlated with worse drug responses and high disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that mainly produced by regulator...

    Authors: Yuxuan Li, Yang Jie, Xiaofei Wang and Jing Lu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:42
  27. There is a global focus on illness diagnosis in smear-negative and latent tuberculosis infectious populations (SN-TB and LTBI). CD27 has been suggested to play a direct role in active TB. Little is known about...

    Authors: Feifan Xu, Haiyun Zhang, Xiaoyan Si, Junlin Chen, Yuhao Chen, Xiaopeng Cui and Yongwei Qin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:41
  28. Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk for occupationally acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis (TB) disease due to repeated exposure to workplace tubercle bacilli. To determine whether c...

    Authors: Cui-lin Shi, Jian-ping Zhang, Ping Xu, Jin Li, Jie Shen, Mei-ying Wu, Zhi-jian Ye, Xin Yu, Hua-feng Song, Hui Chen, Jun-chi Xu, Yu Pang and Jian-an Huang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:39
  29. The synergistic effect of chemoradiation (CRT) has been previously demonstrated in several cancer types. Here, we investigated the systemic immune effects of CRT in patients with lung or head and neck cancer.

    Authors: Jihane Boustani, Elodie Lauret Marie Joseph, Etienne Martin, Salim Benhmida, Benoit Lecoester, Florent Tochet, Céline Mirjolet, Cédric Chevalier, David Thibouw, Noémie Vulquin, Stéphanie Servagi, Xushan Sun and Olivier Adotévi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:38
  30. Chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are heterogeneous and often co-morbid, with increasing global prevalence. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D) can result in severe i...

    Authors: Sarah E. Kleinstein, Jamison McCorrison, Alaa Ahmed, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E. Van Dyke and Marcelo Freire
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:37
  31. Some long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) have decreasing CD4+ T cell counts and progress to AIDS. Exploring which subsets of CD4+ T cell decreasing and the determinants associated with the decay in these patients w...

    Authors: Ling Xu, Yubin Liu, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:36
  32. Mast cells (MCs) are known to contribute to both acute and chronic inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells are the first line of defence against pathogens and a deficient anti-viral response has been suggeste...

    Authors: Sangeetha Ramu, Hamid Akbarshahi, Sofia Mogren, Frida Berlin, Samuel Cerps, Mandy Menzel, Morten Hvidtfeldt, Celeste Porsbjerg, Lena Uller and Cecilia K. Andersson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:35
  33. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is widely considered as a pivotal immune checkpoint molecule to suppress antitumor immunity. However, the significance of soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) remai...

    Authors: Jiajia Liu, Xiaoyi Tian, Yan Wang, Xixiong Kang and Wenqi Song
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:33
  34. Macrophages play prominent roles in bacteria recognition and clearance, including Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete. To elucidate mechanisms by which MyD88/TLR signaling enhances clearance of...

    Authors: Sarah J. Benjamin, Kelly L. Hawley, Paola Vera-Licona, Carson J. La Vake, Jorge L. Cervantes, Yijun Ruan, Justin D. Radolf and Juan C. Salazar
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:32
  35. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an inborn errors of immunity, that leads to recurrent chronic infections and autoimmune/ inflammatory diseases and neoplasms. It is considered that these condition is...

    Authors: Itana Gomes Alves Andrade, Fabíola Isabel Suano de Souza, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Carolina Sanchez Aranda and Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:31
  36. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signaling is considered to regulate anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages, dendritic cell maturation, osteoclast development, induction of obesity,...

    Authors: Hwa-Youn Lee, Eun-Hee Lee, Jawoon Yi, Kon-Young Ji, Su-Man Kim, Ha-Rim Choi, Su-Min Yee, Hyung-Sik Kang and Eun-Mi Kim
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:30
  37. Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly accepted that the act of giving birth is the final step in a proinflammatory signaling cascade, orch...

    Authors: João Mendes, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Ana Luísa Areia, Jani-Sofia Almeida, Vera Alves, Manuel Santos-Rosa and Anabela Mota-Pinto
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:28
  38. Food proteins differ in their allergenic potential. Currently, there is no predictive and validated bio-assay to evaluate the allergenicity of novel food proteins. The objective of this study was to investigat...

    Authors: Mark Smits, Marjolein Meijerink, Thuy-My Le, André Knulst, Aard de Jong, Martinus Petrus Maria Caspers, Everton Souto Lima, Lilia Babé, Gregory Ladics, Scott McClain, Geert Houben and Kitty Verhoeckx
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:27
  39. Cytotoxic Natural Killer (NK) cells are increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to induce targeted cell death in cancer and autoimmune diseases. Still, basic blood NK cell parameters are poorly defined. The...

    Authors: Wolfgang Merkt, Ulrich Salzer, Jens Thiel, Ilona Jandova, Raoul Bergner, Ana C. Venhoff and Nils Venhoff
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:26
  40. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator expressed on T cells, and is also expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. The function of Tim-3 chiefly restricts IFNγ-produc...

    Authors: Xiaowen Yu, Bin Lang, Xi Chen, Yao Tian, Shi Qian, Zining Zhang, Yajing Fu, Junjie Xu, Xiaoxu Han, Haibo Ding and Yongjun Jiang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:25
  41. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as essential modulators in clinical infectious and inflammatory diseases. The GC receptor (GR) is a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor famil...

    Authors: Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chien-Liang Chen, Chi-Yuan Hwang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai and Chia-Chang Chuang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:24

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2021 22:45

  42. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin and a vital component of gram-negative bacteria’s outer membrane. During gram-negative bacterial sepsis, LPS regulates osteoclast differentiation and activity, in addit...

    Authors: Mohammed S. AlQranei, Linda T. Senbanjo, Hanan Aljohani, Therwa Hamza and Meenakshi A. Chellaiah
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:23
  43. The spread of a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and other countries is of great concern worldwide with no effective vaccine. This study aimed to d...

    Authors: Yassir A. Almofti, Khoubieb Ali Abd-elrahman and Elsideeq E. M. Eltilib
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:22

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